Leslie T Buck

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We develop a unifying theory of hypoxia tolerance based on information from two cell level models (brain cortical cells and isolated hepatocytes) from the highly anoxia tolerant aquatic turtle and from other more hypoxia sensitive systems. We propose that the response of hypoxia tolerant systems to oxygen lack occurs in two phases (defense and rescue). The(More)
The ability of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles to survive extremes of oxygen availability derives from a core triad of adaptations: profound metabolic suppression, tolerance of ionic and pH disturbances, and mechanisms for avoiding free-radical injury during reoxygenation. For long-term anoxic survival, enhanced storage of glycogen in critical tissues is(More)
Hypoxia-induced suppression of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) cortical neurons may be critical for surviving months of anoxic dormancy. We report that NMDARs are silenced by at least three different mechanisms operating at different times during anoxia. In pyramidal neurons from cerebrocortex, 1-8 min anoxia suppressed(More)
We describe the genome of the western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii, one of the most widespread, abundant, and well-studied turtles. We place the genome into a comparative evolutionary context, and focus on genomic features associated with tooth loss, immune function, longevity, sex differentiation and determination, and the species' physiological(More)
Substrate preferences of isolated mitochondria and maximal enzyme activities were used to assess the oxidative capacities of red muscle (RM) and white muscle (WM) of carp (Cyprinus carpio). A 14-fold higher activity of citrate synthase (CS) in RM reflects the higher mitochondrial density in this tissue. RM mitochondria oxidize pyruvate and fatty acyl(More)
Down-regulation of ion channel activity ('channel arrest'), which aids in preserving critical ion gradients in concert with greatly diminished energy production, is one important strategy by which anoxia-tolerant neurons adapt to O2 shortage. Channel arrest results in the elimination of action potentials and neurotransmission and also decreases the need for(More)
A hallmark of anoxia tolerance in western painted turtles is relative constancy of tissue adenylate concentrations during periods of oxygen limitation. During anoxia heart and brain intracellular compartments become more acidic and cellular energy demands are met by anaerobic glycolysis. Because changes in adenylates and pH during anoxic stress could(More)
  • Leslie T Buck
  • Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B…
  • 2004
Certain freshwater turtles and fish are extremely anoxia-tolerant, capable of surviving hours of anoxia at high temperatures and weeks to months at low temperatures. There is great interest in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying anoxia-tolerance in these groups because they are anoxia-tolerant vertebrates and because of the far-reaching medical(More)
The maintenance of ion gradients across the plasma membrane by the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase has been shown to utilize a large fraction of the total cellular energy demand. In view of the importance of ion gradients to cellular function, and the remarkable anoxia tolerance of Chrysemys picta bellii (western painted turtle) and hepatocytes isolated from this(More)
To characterize the effect of severe hypoxia on neuronal activity, long-term intracellular recordings were made from neurones in the isolated central ring ganglia of Lymnaea stagnalis. When a neurone at rest in normoxia was subjected to severe hypoxia, action potential firing frequency decreased by 38% (from 2.4-1.5 spikes s(-1)), and the resting membrane(More)