Leslie R. Cockerham

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OBJECTIVE To determine the relationship of HIV infection, demographic, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with mortality in the recent highly active antiretroviral therapy era. METHODS Vital status was ascertained from 2004 to 2007 in 922 HIV infected and 280 controls in the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV infection; 469(More)
The association between the host immune environment and the size of the HIV reservoir during effective antiretroviral therapy is not clear. Progress has also been limited by the lack of a well-accepted assay for quantifying HIV during therapy. We examined the association between multiple measurements of HIV and T cell activation (as defined by markers(More)
BACKGROUND There is intense interest in the role of programmed death 1 (PD-1) in causing persistent T-cell dysfunction in HIV infection. However, the impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the expression of PD-1 on T cells is still poorly defined. METHODS PD-1 was measured longitudinally in a cohort of recently HIV-infected(More)
A cure for HIV is still greatly needed and has become a global research priority. A unique subset of HIV-infected individuals who spontaneously control HIV exists, and these are known as 'elite controllers'. They may represent a natural model for a 'functional cure' in which there is long term control of viral replication and remission from symptoms of HIV(More)
Descriptions of individuals who are able to control viral replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy after receiving short-term therapy early in infection ("post-treatment controllers") has generated excitement and controversy within the field. As with natural or "elite" controllers, these cases provide hope that a long-term remission or(More)
OBJECTIVE The eradication of HIV necessitates elimination of the HIV latent reservoir. Identifying host determinants governing latency and reservoir size in the setting of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an important step in developing strategies to cure HIV infection. We sought to determine the impact of cell-intrinsic immunity on the HIV latent reservoir.(More)
Individuals who are heterozygous for the CCR5-Δ32 mutation provide a natural model to examine the effects of reduced CCR5 expression on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence. We evaluated the HIV reservoir in 18 CCR5-Δ32 heterozygotes and 54 CCR5 wild-type individuals during suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Cell-associated HIV RNA levels(More)
In a series of 183 patients with proven cancers of the esophagus and stomach, endoscopic cytology was positive in 155 or 84.7 per cent. Endoscopic biopsy in 173 of these patients was positive in 137 or 79 per cent. At least one of the techiques was positive in 164 patients or 94.8 per cent. These results emphasize the overall accuracy of endoscopic cytology(More)