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The ecological success of shallow-water reef-building corals (Hexacorallia: Scleractinia) is framed by their intimate endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae). In contrast, the closely related black corals (Hexacorallia: Anthipatharia) are described as azooxanthellate (lacking Symbiodinium), a trait thought(More)
Although sea urchin gastrulation is well described at the cellular level, our understanding of the molecular changes that trigger the coordinated cell movements involved is not complete. Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a component of the planar cell polarity pathway and is required for cell movements during embryonic development in several animal species. To(More)
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