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To our knowledge, reproductive health effects among male leather tannery workers have not been previously investigated. Tannery work involves exposure to chromium, solvents, and other chemicals, which has been associated with adverse pregnancy and fertility outcomes in animals or humans in some studies. This study retrospectively investigates the(More)
The impact of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) access on mitigating illness is well documented, although impact of school-based WASH on school-aged children has not been rigorously explored. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in Nyanza Province, Kenya to assess the impact of a school-based WASH intervention on diarrhoeal disease in(More)
Water insecurity is a primary underlying determinant of global health disparities. While public health research on water insecurity has focused mainly on two dimensions, water access and adequacy, an anthropological perspective highlights the cultural or lifestyle dimension of water insecurity, and its implications for access/adequacy and for the(More)
OBJECTIVES There has been increased attention to access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) at schools in developing countries, but a dearth of empirical studies on the impact. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial of school-based WASH on pupil absence in Nyanza Province, Kenya, from 2007 to 2008. METHODS Public primary schools nested in three(More)
We employed a cluster randomized trial design to measure the impact of a school based water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) improvement on pupil enrollment and on gender parity in enrollment, in primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya (2007-2009). Among schools with poor water access during the dry season, those that received a water supply, hygiene(More)
Handwashing with soap effectively reduces exposure to diarrhea-causing pathogens. Interventions to improve hygiene and sanitation conditions in schools within low-income countries have gained increased attention; however, their impact on schoolchildren's exposure to fecal pathogens has not been established. Our trial examined whether a school-based water,(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined the impact of school water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions on diarrhea-related outcomes among younger siblings of school-going children. METHODS We conducted a cluster-randomized trial among 185 schools in Kenya from 2007 to 2009. We assigned schools to 1 of 2 study groups according to water availability. Multilevel(More)
This cross-sectional analysis examined the influence of school and household water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions on recent primary school absence in light of other individual, household, and school characteristics in western Kenya. School latrine cleanliness was the only school WASH factor associated with reduced odds of absence. The marginal(More)
We assessed whether supplying soap to primary schools on a regular basis increased pupil hand washing and decreased Escherichia coli hand contamination. Multiple rounds of structured observations of hand washing events after latrine use were conducted in 60 Kenyan schools, and hand rinse samples were collected one time in a subset of schools. The proportion(More)