Learn More
BACKGROUND Hyperhomocysteinemia arising from impaired methionine metabolism, probably usually due to a deficiency of cystathionine beta-synthase, is associated with premature cerebral, peripheral, and possibly coronary vascular disease. Both the strength of this association and its independence of other risk factors for cardiovascular disease are uncertain.(More)
Blood was taken at the first antenatal clinic from 56,049 pregnant women. Neural tube defect (NTD) pregnancies (81) were compared to controls (247) for plasma vitamin B12 (B12) (ng/l), plasma folate (microgram/l), and red cell folate (RCF) (microgram/l). Median values were significantly different and were, respectively, 243 and 296 (p = 0.001); 3.47 and(More)
Using data from a recent case-control study, a woman's risk of having a child with a neural tube defect (NTD) was found to be associated with early pregnancy red cell folate levels in a continuous dose-response relationship. These findings were used to calculate the reduction in NTD cases that would be expected under two different strategies to raise folate(More)
OBJECTIVE Mediolateral episiotomy is associated with lower rates of significant perineal tears than midline episiotomy. However, the relationship between precise angle of episiotomy from the perineal midline and risk of third-degree tear has not been established. This study quantifies this relationship. DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING National(More)
Most people with acute gastroenteritis do not seek medical care and are therefore not captured by routine surveillance. For this reason, population-based studies are needed to measure the burden of illness. A study of acute gastroenteritis in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland surveyed 9,903 people by telephone over the 12-month period from(More)
Genetic factors play a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but are poorly understood. A number of candidate genes have been proposed on the basis of the pathogenesis of COPD. These include the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes which play a role in tissue remodelling and fit in with the protease - antiprotease imbalance theory for the(More)
Statistical analysis using confidence intervals is now a preferred approach in the medical literature, and confidence limits for binomial proportions and Poisson counts are commonly required. Normal approximations of varying accuracy are often used in such situations and it is not generally realised that non-iterative exact solutions are available. This(More)
CONTEXT Elevated plasma homocysteine is a known risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease, but the strength of the relationship and the interaction of plasma homocysteine with other risk factors are unclear. OBJECTIVE To establish the magnitude of the vascular disease risk associated with an increased plasma homocysteine level and to examine(More)
Significant deficiencies in personal social networks and social support in non-psychotic psychiatric out-patients have been reported by Henderson ad his colleagues. In a replication study, 50 non-psychotic psychiatric out-patients were compared with 50 matched controls. Patients reported spending less time in social interaction, but more time in unpleasant(More)
BACKGROUND Studies in several countries have estimated the prevalence of diarrhoea in the community. However, the use of different study designs and varying case definitions has made international comparisons difficult. METHODS Similar cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted in Australia, Canada, Ireland (including Northern Ireland), and the(More)