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The Xolloid secreted metalloprotease, a tolloid-related protein, was found to cleave Chordin and Chordin/BMP-4 complexes at two specific sites in biochemical experiments Xolloid mRNA blocks secondary axes caused by chordin, but not by noggin, follistatin, or dominant-negative BMP receptor, mRNA injection. Xolloid-treated Chordin protein was unable to(More)
We have identified a novel Tolloid-like metalloprotease, called Xolloid-related (Xlr), that is expressed during early Xenopus development. Transcripts for xlr are localized to the marginal zone of mid-gastrulae and are most abundant in ventral and lateral sectors. At neurula stages xlr is strongly expressed around the blastopore and in the pharyngeal(More)
Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) is a transforming growth factor-beta family member that is required for normal folliculogenesis in female mice, but its role as a regulator of human fertility is still unclear. We determined here by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses the localization of the GDF-9 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)(More)
BMP-4 is an extracellular signalling molecule belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily that plays a central role in dorsoventral patterning in vertebrate gastrulae. We review the evidence indicating that BMP-4 acts as a morphogen, specifying dorsoventral positional values in a concentration-dependent manner. An activity gradient of BMP-4 is established not by(More)
Injection of RNA encoding BMP-4 into the early Xenopus embryo suppresses formation of dorsal and anterior cell types. To understand this phenomenon, it is necessary to know the stage at which BMP-4 acts. In this paper, we present three lines of evidence showing that BMP-4 misexpression has no effect on the initial steps of mesoderm induction, either dorsal(More)
Bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) is a metalloproteinase closely related to Drosophila Tolloid (Tld). Tld regulates dorsoventral patterning in early Drosophila embryos by enhancing the activity of Dpp, a member of the TGF-beta family most closely related to BMP2 and BMP4. In Xenopus BMP4 appears to play an essential role in dorsoventral patterning,(More)
Bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) is a metalloprotease that ventralises dorsal mesoderm when overexpressed in early Xenopus embryos. Here we show that Xenopus BMP1 blocks the dorsalising activity of chordin, but not noggin or DeltaxBMPR, when coexpressed in the ventral marginal zone and degrades chordin protein in vitro. We also show that a(More)
We have used the Xenopus embryo as a test system for analyzing the activity of SpAN, a sea urchin metalloprotease in the astacin family containing BMP1 and tolloid. Embryos expressing SpAN initiated gastrulation on a time scale indistinguishable from controls, but invagination of the vegetal pole was subsequently delayed by several hours. At tailbud stages(More)
This paper reviews work with cell lineage labels and cell-type specific markers in the analysis of inductive interactions in early amphibian development. Our results provide clear evidence for the existence of three such interactions. Mesodermal induction occurs in the early blastula and results from the action of vegetal pole cells on the animal(More)
Extracellular ATP functions as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the adult nervous system, and a signaling molecule in non-neural tissue, acting either via ligand-gated ion channels (P2X) or G-protein-coupled receptors (P2Y). ATP can cause an increase in intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i) in embryonic cells and so regulate cell proliferation, migration, and(More)