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The mesoderm of amphibian embryos such as Xenopus laevis arises through an inductive interaction in which cells of the vegetal hemisphere of the embryo act on overlying equatorial and animal pole cells. Three classes of 'mesoderm-inducing factor' (MIF) that might be responsible for this interaction in vivo have been discovered. These are members of the(More)
A complete fate map has been produced for the 32-cell stage of Xenopus laevis. Embryos with a regular cleavage pattern were selected and individual blastomeres were injected with the lineage label fluorescein-dextran-amine (FDA). The spatial location of the clones was deduced from three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of later stages and the volume of each(More)
The Xolloid secreted metalloprotease, a tolloid-related protein, was found to cleave Chordin and Chordin/BMP-4 complexes at two specific sites in biochemical experiments Xolloid mRNA blocks secondary axes caused by chordin, but not by noggin, follistatin, or dominant-negative BMP receptor, mRNA injection. Xolloid-treated Chordin protein was unable to(More)
To examine whether a BMP signaling pathway functions in specification of cell fates in sea urchin embryos, we have cloned sea urchin BMP2/4, analyzed its expression in time and space in developing embryos and assayed the developmental consequences of changing its concentration through mRNA injection experiments. These studies show that BMP4 mRNAs accumulate(More)
Vg1 is a maternal mRNA localized to the vegetal hemisphere of Xenopus embryos during blastula stages, a region responsible for the induction of mesoderm in the adjacent marginal zone. Its homology to the transforming growth factor-beta family, which includes several proteins with mesoderm-inducing activity, suggests a role for Vg1 as an endogenous(More)
Injection of RNA encoding BMP-4 into the early Xenopus embryo suppresses formation of dorsal and anterior cell types. To understand this phenomenon, it is necessary to know the stage at which BMP-4 acts. In this paper, we present three lines of evidence showing that BMP-4 misexpression has no effect on the initial steps of mesoderm induction, either dorsal(More)
Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) is a transforming growth factor-beta family member that is required for normal folliculogenesis in female mice, but its role as a regulator of human fertility is still unclear. We determined here by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses the localization of the GDF-9 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)(More)
Bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) is a metalloproteinase closely related to Drosophila Tolloid (Tld). Tld regulates dorsoventral patterning in early Drosophila embryos by enhancing the activity of Dpp, a member of the TGF-beta family most closely related to BMP2 and BMP4. In Xenopus BMP4 appears to play an essential role in dorsoventral patterning,(More)
We have further analysed the roles of mesoderm induction and dorsalization in the formation of a regionally specified mesoderm in early embryos of Xenopus laevis. First, we have examined the regional specificity of mesoderm induction by isolating single blastomeres from the vegetalmost tier of the 32-cell embryo and combining each with a lineage-labelled(More)
The Wnt genes are known to play fundamental roles during patterning and development of a number of embryonic structures. Receptors for Wnts are members of the Frizzled family of proteins containing a cysteine-rich domain (CRD) that binds the Wnt protein. Recently several secreted frizzled-related proteins (Sfrps) that also contain a CRD have been identified(More)