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Many bacteria export extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and capsular polysaccharides (CPS). These polymers exhibit remarkably diverse structures and play important roles in the biology of free-living, commensal, and pathogenic bacteria. EPS and CPS production represents a major challenge because these high-molecular-weight hydrophilic polymers must be(More)
The chain length of bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigens is regulated to give a modal distribution that is critical for pathogenesis. This paper describes the process of chain length determination in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-dependent pathway, a pathway that is widespread among Gram-negative bacteria. Escherichia coli O8 and O9/O9a(More)
The most common prokaryotic signal transduction mechanisms are the one-component systems in which a single polypeptide contains both a sensory domain and a DNA-binding domain. Among the >20 classes of one-component systems, the TetR family of regulators (TFRs) are widely associated with antibiotic resistance and the regulation of genes encoding(More)
The polymannan O-antigenic polysaccharides (O-PSs) of Escherichia coli O8 and O9a are synthesized via an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-dependent pathway. The group 2 capsular polysaccharides of E. coli serve as prototypes for polysaccharide synthesis and export via this pathway. Here, we show that there are some fundamental differences between the(More)
An ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-dependent mechanism is responsible for the biosynthesis of polysaccharide O antigens in the lipopolysaccharides of many Gram-negative bacteria. In the Escherichia coli O9a prototype, addition of a non-reducing terminal modification regulates chain length. The terminal residue is an export signal recognized by the(More)
Complex glycoconjugates play critical roles in the biology of microorganisms. Despite the remarkable diversity in glycan structures and the bacteria that produce them, conserved themes are evident in the biosynthesis-export pathways. One of the primary pathways involves representatives of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. These(More)
TetR family transcriptional regulators (TFRs) are found in most bacteria and archea. Most of the family members that have been investigated to date are repressors of their target genes, and the majority of these, like the well-characterized protein TetR, regulate genes that encode transmembrane efflux pumps. In many cases repression by TFR proteins is(More)
ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporters are responsible for the export of a wide variety of cell-surface glycoconjugates in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These include the O-antigenic polysaccharide (O-PS) portion of lipopolysaccharide, a crucial virulence determinant in Gram-negative pathogens. O-PSs are synthesized by one of two(More)
The ligands that interact with the vast majority of small-molecule binding transcription factors are unknown, a significant gap in our understanding of sensory perception by cells. TetR-family regulators (TFRs) are found in most prokaryotes and are involved in regulating virtually every aspect of prokaryotic life however only a few TFRs have been(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing our understanding of antibiotic resistance mechanisms is critical. To enable progress in this area, methods to rapidly identify and characterize antibiotic resistance conferring enzymes are required. RESULTS We have constructed a sensitive reporter system in Escherichia coli that can be used to detect and characterize the activity of(More)