Leslie Carlson Vaughan

Learn More
Two experiments used the N-Back task to test for age differences in working memory inside and outside the focus of attention. Manipulations of the difficulty of item-context binding (Experiment 1) and of stimulus feature binding (Experiment 2) were used to create conditions that varied in their demand on working memory, with the expectation that greater(More)
The present study of older adults used structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between 3 executive processes underlying executive function (EF) (inhibition, task switching, updating in working memory), and 2 types of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) (self-report, performance based). Experimental tasks of executive(More)
Previous research has observed that the size of age differences in short-term memory (STM) depends on the type of material to be remembered, but has not identified the mechanism underlying this pattern. The current study focused on visual STM and examined the contribution of information load, as estimated by the rate of visual search, to STM for two types(More)
OBJECTIVES We investigated (a) cross-sectional associations between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and MRI measures and (b) longitudinal associations between cognitive activity and change in cognitive performance, using structural equation modeling (SEM). METHOD Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) Extension participants who(More)
Through abstract movement, we are able to communicate various emotional content to users on the computer screen. This article examines movement in Theatre and Psychology and how connotative values are associated with movement. Through understanding the characteristics of movement and their various effects, the designer may better understand the complexity(More)
Intraindividual variability among cognitive domains may predict dementia independently of interindividual differences in cognition. A multidomain cognitive battery was administered to 2305 older adult women (mean age 74 years) enrolled in an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative. Women were evaluated annually for probable dementia and mild(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined the relationship between positive and negative affect, depressive symptoms, and cognitive performance. METHODS The sample consisted of 1479 non-demented, postmenopausal women (mean age = 67 years) at increased risk of breast cancer enrolled in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project's Study of Tamoxifen and(More)
Frailty and depression are important issues affecting older adults. Depressive syndrome may be difficult to clinically disambiguate from frailty in advanced old age. Current reviews on the topic include studies with wide methodological variation. This review examined the published literature on cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between frailty(More)
An estimated 65% of individuals demonstrate multidomain cognitive impairment poststroke, although little is known about the varying role of cognitive risk and protective factors in preischemic, peri-ischemic, and postischemic stroke phases. Longitudinal changes in global cognitive function after ischemic stroke are not well characterized, especially in(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether the effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on brain volumes in women aged 65-79 years differs depending on type 2 diabetes status during postintervention follow-up of a randomized controlled clinical trial. METHODS The Women's Health Initiative randomized clinical trials assigned women to HT (0.625 mg/day conjugated(More)