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A meta-analysis was performed of studies of mediated health campaigns in the United States in order to examine the effects of the campaigns on behavior change. Mediated health campaigns have small measurable effects in the short-term. Campaign effect sizes varied by the type of behavior: r=.15 for seat belt use, r=.13 for oral health, r=.09 for alcohol use(More)
OBJECTIVE To test whether alcohol advertising expenditures and the degree of exposure to alcohol advertisements affect alcohol consumption by youth. DESIGN Longitudinal panel using telephone surveys. SETTING Households in 24 US media markets, April 1999 to February 2001. PARTICIPANTS Individuals aged 15 to 26 years were randomly sampled within(More)
OBJECTIVES This meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize evaluations of mass media-delivered HIV prevention interventions, assess the effectiveness of interventions in improving condom use and HIV-related knowledge, and identify moderators of effectiveness. STUDY SELECTION We systematically searched electronic databases, relevant Web sites, related(More)
The objective is to review the evidence for the effectiveness of health communication campaigns to inform future nutrition campaigns. The review drew on existing meta-analyses and other literature. The average health campaign affects the intervention community by about 5 percentage points, and nutrition campaigns for fruit and vegetable consumption, fat(More)
This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark(More)
OBJECTIVE Numerous meta-analyses have examined the success of trials of interventions to reduce the behavioral risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV. Yet, to date, meta-reviews have not systematically examined which type of intervention content is more likely to lead to successful HIV outcomes. The current study addresses this gap. METHODS Published(More)
Since there are many ways to segment an audience into target groups, we suggest that a productive strategy for AIDS education is to divide the audience by their actual and perceived risk. We provide an example in which we segmented an urban U.S. sample and make suggestions as to how messages appropriate for each group can be constructed. In our sample, the(More)
"Xperience" is an innovative alcohol and drug prevention program that has adopted a multilevel, community-based strategy to promote drug-and-alcohol free social activities, venues and norms among urban youth ages 14-20. The intervention aims to strengthen protective factors and reduce risk factors for alcohol and other substance use among high school age(More)
Exposure to trauma can lead to both posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress, but little is known about the commonalities and differences in the pathways through which they occur. The authors examined coping and emotional reactions as mediators of the effect of television exposure on both posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress in a nationally(More)
INTRODUCTION Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological(More)