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Traditionally, proteins have been viewed as a construct based on elements of secondary structure and their arrangement in three-dimensional space. In a departure from this perspective we show that protein structures can be modelled as network systems that exhibit small-world, single-scale, and to some degree, scale-free properties. The phenomenological(More)
We report the latest release (version 3.0) of the CATH protein domain database (http://www.cathdb.info). There has been a 20% increase in the number of structural domains classified in CATH, up to 86 151 domains. Release 3.0 comprises 1110 fold groups and 2147 homologous superfamilies. To cope with the increases in diverse structural homologues being(More)
BACKGROUND Chitinases are prevalent in life and are found in species including archaea, bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They break down chitin, which is the second most abundant carbohydrate in nature after cellulose. Hence, they are important for maintaining a balance between carbon and nitrogen trapped as insoluble chitin in biomass. Chitinases are(More)
Emerging evidence suggests that atrial fibrillation is not a benign arrhythmia. It is associated with increased risk of death. The magnitude of association is controversial and potential causes remain unknown. Patients in the registry of the Antiarrhythmics Versus Implantable Defibrillators (AVID) Trial form the basis for this report. Baseline variables, in(More)
Tetrameric transthyretin is involved in transport of thyroxine and, through its interactions with retinol binding protein, vitamin A. Dissociation of these structures is widely accepted as the first step in the formation of transthyretin amyloid fibrils. Using a mass spectrometric approach, we have examined a series of 18 ligands proposed as inhibitors of(More)
This paper explores the structural continuum in CATH and the extent to which superfamilies adopt distinct folds. Although most superfamilies are structurally conserved, in some of the most highly populated superfamilies (4% of all superfamilies) there is considerable structural divergence. While relatives share a similar fold in the evolutionary conserved(More)
The molten globule state is a partially folded conformer of proteins that has been the focus of intense study for more than two decades. This non-native fluctuating conformation has been linked to protein-folding intermediates, to biological function, and more recently to precursors in amyloid fibril formation. The molten globule state of human serum(More)
The application of the field of network science to the scientific disciplines of structural biology and biochemistry, have yielded important new insights into the nature and determinants of protein structures, function, dynamics and the folding process. Advancements in further understanding protein relationships through network science have also reshaped(More)
In 2000, regulation on orphan medicinal products was adopted in the European Union with the aim of benefiting patients who suffer from serious, rare conditions for which there is currently no satisfactory treatment. Since then, more than 850 orphan drug designations have been granted by the European Commission based on a positive opinion from the Committee(More)