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BACKGROUND The effect of alcohol portrayals and advertising on the drinking behaviour of young people is a matter of much debate. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on subsequent drinking behaviour in young people by systematic review of cohort (longitudinal) studies. METHODS studies were(More)
BACKGROUND We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the risk of early and late cardiotoxicity of anthracycline agents in patients treated for breast or ovarian cancer, lymphoma, myeloma or sarcoma. METHODS Randomized controlled trials were sought using comprehensive searches of electronic databases in June 2008. Reference lists of(More)
The effectiveness of intra-articular (IA) morphine in arthroscopic procedures of the knee joint was analysed in all randomised and controlled trials that included injections of morphine and placebo into the knee joint, and where the data were analysable. Sensitivity of the studies and effectiveness were analysed for three different periods: immediate(More)
We wanted to compare the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacological treatments for acute migraine through a systematic review of randomised controlled trials in patients with acute migraine pain of moderate to severe intensity. Trials were identified from systematic searching of bibliographic databases. For eletriptan information from all(More)
The objectives of the study were (1) to carry out a systematic review to assess the analgesic efficacy and the adverse effects of acupuncture compared with placebo for back and neck pain and (2) to develop a new tool, the Oxford Pain Validity Scale (OPVS), to measure validity of findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and to enable ranking of(More)
The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the accuracy of screening tools for predicting falling risk in community-living older adults. This study was designed as a systematic review. Prospective studies of clinical fall risk prediction tools that provided data on the number of participants who sustained falls during follow-up were(More)
We sought to investigate the potential of using a simple global estimation ('How effective do you think the treatment was?') as a measure of efficacy by comparing it with at least 50%maxTOTPAR (at least 50% of the maximum possible pain relief) in acute pain studies. One hundred and fifty randomized, double-blind trials included in 11 systematic reviews of(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate topical honey in superficial burns and wounds though a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, reference lists and databases were used to seek randomised controlled trials. Seven randomised trials involved superficial burns, partial thickness burns, moderate to(More)
This paper examines the development and consistency of children's (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) naïve concepts of inheritance using three tasks. A modified adoption task asked participants to distinguish between biological and social parentage in their predictions and explanations of the origins of different feature types (physical characteristics, disabilities,(More)
BACKGROUND Our aim was to describe the range of perineal trauma in women with a singleton vaginal birth and estimate the effect of maternal and obstetric characteristics on the incidence of perineal tears. METHODS We conducted a prospective observational study on all women with a planned singleton vaginal delivery between May and September 2006 in one(More)