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Influenza A virus, being responsible for seasonal epidemics and reoccurring pandemics, represents a worldwide threat to public health. High mutation rates facilitate the generation of viral escape mutants, rendering vaccines and drugs directed against virus-encoded targets potentially ineffective. In contrast, targeting host cell determinants temporarily(More)
Proteus mirabilis forms extensive crystalline biofilms on urethral catheters that occlude urine flow and frequently complicate the management of long-term-catheterized patients. Here, using random transposon mutagenesis in conjunction with in vitro models of the catheterized urinary tract, we elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the formation of(More)
We tested the ability of pollution induced community tolerance (PICT) to detect the effects of chronic metal pollution on estuarine sediment microbial communities, along a gradient spanning two orders of magnitude in metal concentrations. In tandem, we investigated the associated microbial community structure using terminal restriction fragment length(More)
The post-genomic era promises to pave the way to a personalized understanding of disease processes, with technological and analytical advances helping to solve some of the world's health challenges. Despite extraordinary progress in our understanding of cancer pathogenesis, the disease remains one of the world's major medical problems. New therapies and(More)
Here, we outline our current understanding of the human gut virome, in particular the phage component of this ecosystem, highlighting progress, and challenges in viral discovery in this arena. We reveal how developments in high-throughput sequencing technologies and associated data analysis methodologies are helping to illuminate this abundant 'biological(More)
OBJECTIVES Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) is an infection prevention measure for critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) that aims to eradicate opportunistic pathogens from the oropharynx and intestines, while sparing the anaerobic flora, by the application of non-absorbable antibiotics. Selection for antibiotic-resistant bacteria(More)
With more than 160 years of contrasting fertilizer regimes, the Broadbalk winter wheat experiment represents a unique experimental resource for studying the effects of long-term fertilizer application on microbial population diversity. Using DGGE and clone library analysis, we report here on eubacterial species diversity (16S rRNA gene) and diversity within(More)
The recently published article by Gadaleta and co-workers 1 has demonstrated that activation of the bile acid (BA) nuclear receptor, Farnesoid X receptor α (FXR), affords multi-level protection against intestinal inflammation and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in mice. Of the numerous avenues of research into IBD diagnosis and treatment that are opened by(More)
Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) have a key role in shaping the development and functional outputs of host microbiomes. Although metagenomic approaches have greatly expanded our understanding of the prokaryotic virosphere, additional tools are required for the phage-oriented dissection of metagenomic data sets, and host-range affiliation of recovered(More)