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Axonal injury to CNS neurons results in apoptotic cell death. The processes by which axotomy signals apoptosis are diverse, and may include deprivation of target-derived factors, induction of injury factors, bursts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and other mechanisms. Our previous studies demonstrated that death of a dissociated retinal ganglion cell, an(More)
PURPOSE Retinal light exposure is a source of oxidative stress, and retinal cells contain molecules that scavenge or inactivate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Yet, ROS also play a role in signal transduction, and some retinal cells (e.g., neurotrophin-dependent retinal ganglion cells, RGCs) may use ROS as part of the signaling process for cell death. RGCs(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on breathing of neuronal dysfunction in the retrotrapezoid (RTN), facial (FN), gigantocellularis reticularis (RGN), or vestibular (VN) nuclei of adult awake goats. Microtubules were chronically implanted to induce neuronal dysfunction by microinjection of an excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor(More)
An anatomic atlas of the goat brain stem was developed for use in studies that analyze medullary neuronal groups, and factors that influence variability in the location of neuronal groups were determined. The medullas of 31 adult goats (weight, 17-88 kg) were fixed, harvested, frozen, serially sectioned, stained with 0.5% neutral red, and examined with a(More)
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