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The 104 nucleotides long 3' terminal region of TMV RNA was shown previously to contain two pseudoknotted structures (Rietveld et al. (1984), EMBO J. 3, 2613-2619). We here present evidence for the occurrence, within the 204 nucleotides long 3' noncoding region, of another highly structured domain located immediately adjacent to the tRNA-like structure of 95(More)
In Escherichia coli transcription of the tRNA operon thrU (tufB) and the rRNA operon rrnB is trans-activated by the protein FIS. This protein, which stimulates the inversion of various viral DNA segments, binds specifically to a cis-acting sequence (designated UAS) upstream of the promoter of thrU (tufB) and the P1 promoter of the rrnB operon. There are(More)
The important family of G protein-coupled receptors has so far not been targeted very successfully with conventional monoclonal antibodies. Here we report the isolation and characterization of functional VHH-based immunoglobulin single variable domains (or nanobodies) against the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Two highly selective monovalent nanobodies, 238D2(More)
Covalent modification of proteins by phosphate transfer reactions constitutes a major mechanism of regulation in higher eukaryotes. Recently, phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factors has been described. Analysis of Escherichia coli proteins revealed several of them to be phosphorylated. Various lines of evidence lead us to conclude that one of these(More)
Tertiary interactions involving hairpin or interior loops of RNA can lead to extended quasi-continuous double helical stem regions, consisting of coaxially stacked segments of duplex RNA, bridged by single-stranded connections. This type of compact folding plays a role in various strategic regions of RNA molecules. Their role in ribosome functioning, RNA(More)
The thrU(tufB) operon of Escherichia coli is endowed with a cis-acting region upstream of the promoter, designated UAS for Upstream Activator Sequence. A protein fraction has been isolated that binds specifically to DNA fragments of the UAS, thus forming three protein-DNA complexes corresponding to three binding sites on the UAS. It stimulates in vitro(More)
The polypeptide chain elongation factor EF-Tu of Escherichia coli is encoded by two genes, tufA and tufB, located in two different operons. Experiments in which either tufA or tufB was inactivated demonstrated that expression of the tRNA-tufB operon is dependent on a functioning tufA and thus on EF-Tu (1, to be published). In order to study a possible role(More)
We have identified, cloned and sequenced three tuf-like genes from Streptomyces ramocissimus (Sr.), the producer of the antibiotic kirromycin which inhibits protein synthesis by binding the polypeptide chain elongation factor EF-Tu. The tuf-1 gene encodes a protein with 71% amino acid residues identical to the well characterized elongation factor Tu of(More)
The 3' terminus of TYMV RNA, which possesses tRNA-like properties, has been studied. A 3' terminal fragment of 112 nucleotides was obtained by cleavage with RNase H after hybridization of a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide to the viral RNA. The accessibility of cytidine and adenosine residues was probed with chemical modification. Enzymatic digestion studies(More)