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The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) with bone mineral density (BMD) independent of genetic effects. We also assessed the extent to which genetic and environmental influences explain the associations between these phenotypes. Body composition and BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray(More)
BACKGROUND The development of obesity is still a poorly understood process that is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE The objective was to examine how physical activity and the proportion of energy as protein in the diet modify the genetic variation of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percentage body fat. (More)
OBJECTIVE To study whether eating or physical-activity (PA) habits differ between obese and non-obese monozygotic (MZ) co-twins independent of genetic effects. METHODS Rare MZ pairs discordant for obesity (n=14, body mass index difference 5.2+/-1.8 kg m(-2)) and weight-concordant control pairs (n=10, 1.0+/-0.7 kg m(-2)), identified through a(More)
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Nutritional epidemiology is increasingly shifting its focus from studying single nutrients to the exploration of the whole diet utilizing dietary pattern analysis. We analyzed associations between habitual diet (including macronutrients, dietary patterns, biomarker of fish intake) and lipoprotein particle subclass profile in young(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate how obesity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation link to circulating metabolites, and whether the connections are due to genetic or environmental factors. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Circulating serum metabolites were determined by proton NMR spectroscopy. Data from 1368 (531 monozygotic (MZ) and 837 dizygotic (DZ)) twins were(More)
BACKGROUND Overconsumption of dietary sugars, fructose in particular, is linked to cardiovascular risk factors such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, clinical studies have to date not clarified whether these adverse cardiometabolic effects are induced directly by dietary sugars, or whether they are(More)
RATIONALE Obesity, blood pressure and arterial stiffness are heritable traits interconnected to each other but their possible common genetic and environmental etiologies are unknown. METHODS We studied 228 monozygotic and 150 dizygotic twin pairs aged 18-82 years from Italy, Hungary and the United States, of which 45 monozygotic and 38 dizygotic pairs(More)
OBJECTIVE Impaired incretin response represents an early and uniform defect in type 2 diabetes, but the contributions of genes and the environment are poorly characterized. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 35 monozygotic (MZ) and 75 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (discordant and concordant for obesity) to determine the heritability of glucagon-like peptide(More)
OBJECTIVES Little is known about the relationship between growth and lipoprotein profile. We aimed to analyze common genetic and environmental factors in the association of height from late childhood to adulthood and pubertal timing with serum lipid and lipoprotein subclass profile. METHODS A longitudinal cohort of Finnish twin pairs (FinnTwin12) was(More)