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Aberrant alpha-synuclein degradation is implicated in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis because the protein accumulates in the Lewy inclusion bodies associated with the disease. Little is known, however, about the pathways by which wild-type alpha-synuclein is normally degraded. We found that wild-type alpha-synuclein was selectively translocated into(More)
Alpha-synuclein (ASYN) is crucial in Parkinson disease (PD) pathogenesis. Increased levels of wild type (WT) ASYN expression are sufficient to cause PD in humans. The manner of post-transcriptional regulation of ASYN levels is controversial. Previously, we had shown that WT ASYN can be degraded by chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in isolated liver(More)
BACKGROUND Background The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) harbours highly penetrant mutations that are linked to familial parkinsonism. However, the extent of its polymorphic variability in relation to risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been assessed systematically. We therefore assessed the frequency of LRRK2 exonic variants in individuals(More)
OBJECTIVES A simple clinical score (ABCD(2) score) has been introduced to triage TIA patients with a high early risk of stroke. External validation studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the predictive ability of the ABCD(2) score. We aimed to prospectively validate the former score in a multicenter case series study. METHODS We prospectively(More)
Previous reports have shown that DNA-damage-evoked death of embryonic cortical neurons is delayed by general caspase inhibitors and is accompanied by an increase in DEVD-AFC cleavage activity. We show here that this cleavage activity is lacking in camptothecin-treated caspase 3-deficient neurons. Moreover, we report that death of camptothecin-treated(More)
Alpha-synuclein mutations have been identified in certain families with Parkinson's disease (PD), and alpha-synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies. Other genetic data indicate that the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system is involved in PD pathogenesis. We have generated stable PC12 cell lines expressing wild-type or A53T mutant human(More)
Increased numbers of autophagosomes/autophagic vacuoles are seen in a variety of physiological and pathological states in the nervous system. In many cases, it is unclear if this phenomenon is the result of increased autophagic activity or decreased autophagosome-lysosome fusion. The functional significance of autophagy and its relationship to cell death in(More)
Proteasomal dysfunction has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease and diffuse Lewy body disease. We have developed an in vitro model of proteasomal dysfunction by applying pharmacological inhibitors of the proteasome, lactacystin or ZIE[O-tBu]-A-leucinal (PSI), to dopaminergic PC12(More)
Here, we compare the pathways by which DNA-damaging agents, NGF deprivation, and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) depletion evoke apoptosis of sympathetic neurons. Previous work raised the hypothesis that cell cycle signaling plays a required role in neuronal apoptosis elicited by NGF deprivation and the DNA-damaging agent camptothecin. To test this(More)
α-Synuclein is a presynaptic neuronal protein that is linked genetically and neuropathologically to Parkinson's disease (PD). α-Synuclein may contribute to PD pathogenesis in a number of ways, but it is generally thought that its aberrant soluble oligomeric conformations, termed protofibrils, are the toxic species that mediate disruption of cellular(More)