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UNLABELLED Road transport emissions are a major contributor to ambient particulate matter concentrations and have been associated with adverse health effects. Therefore, these emissions are targeted through increasingly stringent European emission standards. These policies succeed in reducing exhaust emissions, but do not address "nonexhaust" emissions from(More)
BACKGROUND Although the mechanisms of airborne particulate matter (PM) related health effects remain incompletely understood, one emerging hypothesis is that these adverse effects derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within affected cells. Typically, ROS are formed in cells through the reduction of oxygen(More)
Three light-duty vehicles in five different configurations [a Honda Accord operating with diesel with a closed-coupled oxidation catalyst and an underfloor catalyst replaced in some tests with a diesel particle filter (DPF), a Toyota Corolla operating with gasoline, and a VW Golf alternatively operating with petrodiesel or biodiesel] were tested in a(More)
Version BLOCKINhistory This report is the updated version of the draft report version 1.0 from June 2012, taking into account comments received from stakeholders and national experts. The following changes have been implemented: It is now assumed that real‐driving NO x emissions from Euro 6 light duty diesel vehicles will decrease in two steps, namely to(More)
The Dekati mass monitor (OMM) is an instrument which measures the mass concentration of airborne particles in real time by combining aerodynamic and mobility size particle classification. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the DMM by sampling exhaust from five engines and vehicles of different technologies in both steady-state and transient(More)
This study presents the number, surface and volume concentrations, and size distribution of particles next to the 1-710 freeway during February through April 2006. 1-710 has the highest ratio (up to 25%) of heavy-duty diesel vehicles in the Los Angeles highway network. Particle concentration measurements were accompanied by measurements of black carbon,(More)
This study presents different research techniques linked together to improve our understanding of the particulate matter (PM) impacts on health. PM samples from the exhaust of different vehicles were collected by a versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES). Waterborne PM samples were collected with this technique, thus retaining the original(More)
Today in most European member states diesel contains up to 5% vol biodiesel. Since blending is expected to increase to 10% vol, the question arises, how this higher mixing ratio will affect tailpipe emissions particularly those linked to adverse health effects. This paper focuses on the impact of biodiesel on carbonyl compound emissions, attempting also to(More)
Five biodiesels from different feedstocks (rapeseed, soy, sunflower, palm, and used fried oils) blended with diesel at 10% vol. ratio (B10), were tested on a Euro 3 common-rail passenger car. Limited effects (-2% to +4%) were observed on CO(2) emissions. CO and HC emissions increased between 10% and 25% on average, except at high speed - high power where(More)