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Gene silencing mediated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a sequence-specific, highly conserved mechanism in eukaryotes. In plants, it serves as an antiviral defence mechanism. Animal cells also possess this machinery but its specific function is unclear. Here we demonstrate that dsRNA can effectively protect human cells against infection by a rapidly(More)
Defective interfering (DI) particles are byproducts of virus replication that potently enhance dendritic cell (DC) maturation by virus infection. DI particles have been reported for many different viruses and are strong inducers of type I IFNs. The cellular mechanisms involved in the response to DI particles are not known. In this study, we show that 1) DI(More)
Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against poliovirus and other viruses effectively inhibit viral replication. Although RNA interference (RNAi) may provide the basis for specific antiviral therapies, the limitations of RNAi antiviral strategies are ill defined. Here, we show that poliovirus readily escapes highly effective siRNAs through unique point(More)
Viral replication depends on specific interactions with host factors. For example, poliovirus RNA replication requires association with intracellular membranes. Brefeldin A (BFA), which induces a major rearrangement of the cellular secretory apparatus, is a potent inhibitor of poliovirus RNA replication. Most aspects governing the relationship between viral(More)
Nodamura Virus (NoV) is a nodavirus originally isolated from insects that can replicate in a wide variety of hosts, including mammals. Because of their simplicity and ability to replicate in many diverse hosts, NoV, and the Nodaviridae in general, provide a unique window into the evolution of viruses and host-virus interactions. Here we show that the(More)
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