Leonid Gitlin

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The innate immune system recognizes viral dsRNA through two distinct pathways; the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathway detects dsRNA phagocytosed in endosomes; the helicases retinoic acid-induced protein I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 (mda-5) detect cytoplasmic dsRNA generated during viral replication. Both RIG-I and mda-5 can bind(More)
Gene silencing mediated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a sequence-specific, highly conserved mechanism in eukaryotes. In plants, it serves as an antiviral defence mechanism. Animal cells also possess this machinery but its specific function is unclear. Here we demonstrate that dsRNA can effectively protect human cells against infection by a rapidly(More)
Noroviruses are important human pathogens responsible for most cases of viral epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) is one of several murine noroviruses isolated from research mouse facilities and has been used as a model of human norovirus infection. MNV-1 infection has been shown to require components of innate and adaptive(More)
Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against poliovirus and other viruses effectively inhibit viral replication. Although RNA interference (RNAi) may provide the basis for specific antiviral therapies, the limitations of RNAi antiviral strategies are ill defined. Here, we show that poliovirus readily escapes highly effective siRNAs through unique point(More)
The early host response to pathogens is mediated by several distinct pattern recognition receptors. Cytoplasmic RNA helicases including RIG-I and MDA5 have been shown to respond to viral RNA by inducing interferon (IFN) production. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated a direct role for MDA5 in the response to members of the Picornaviridae,(More)
Defective interfering (DI) particles are byproducts of virus replication that potently enhance dendritic cell (DC) maturation by virus infection. DI particles have been reported for many different viruses and are strong inducers of type I IFNs. The cellular mechanisms involved in the response to DI particles are not known. In this study, we show that 1) DI(More)
The discovery of a highly conserved cellular machinery that can regulate gene expression in response to double-stranded RNA may revolutionize mammalian virology. This revolution promises not only a deeper understanding of host-pathogen interactions and a novel set of experimental tools to explore the mechanism of viral replication but may also yield new(More)
Viral replication depends on specific interactions with host factors. For example, poliovirus RNA replication requires association with intracellular membranes. Brefeldin A (BFA), which induces a major rearrangement of the cellular secretory apparatus, is a potent inhibitor of poliovirus RNA replication. Most aspects governing the relationship between viral(More)
Nodamura Virus (NoV) is a nodavirus originally isolated from insects that can replicate in a wide variety of hosts, including mammals. Because of their simplicity and ability to replicate in many diverse hosts, NoV, and the Nodaviridae in general, provide a unique window into the evolution of viruses and host-virus interactions. Here we show that the(More)