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Recently Ari Juels suggested a "yoking-proof" where a pair of radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags are both read within a specified time bound, and left open for future research the problem of generating a proof for larger groups of tags. We generalize his protocol by developing a proof which ensures that a group of tags is read within a certain time(More)
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an increasingly popular technology that uses radio signals for object identification. Tracking and authentication in RFID tags have raised many privacy and security concerns. On the other hand, known privacy and security cryptographic defenses are too hardware-expensive to incorporate into low-cost RFID tags. In this(More)
Privacy and security are two main concerns in Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems. We first extend the analysis of the Randomized Tree Walking Algorithm for RFID tag collision avoidance, which is secure against passive adversaries. Then, we devise a new Randomized Pseudo-Random Function (PRF) Tree Walking Algorithm, which is secure against active(More)
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a promising technology for automated non-line-of-sight object identification. However, factors such as object occlusions, metal/liquid opaqueness, environmental conditions, and radio noise degrade the overall availability, reliability, and dependability of RFID systems. We show that simply increasing the number of(More)
Successful object identification is the primary objective of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. Yet, a recent major study by Wal-Mart has shown that object detection probability can be as low as 66%. We propose the tagging of objects with multiple tags to address the fundamental issue of object detectability. We show that this strategy(More)
  • Valentin Bolotnyy, Michael J. Boskin, +6 authors Freddie Mac
  • 2011
The U.S. mortgage crisis that began in 2007 generated questions about the role played by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, the Government-Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs) who dominate the secondary mortgage market, in its causes. Numerous scholars and the press have blamed the Affordable Housing Goals (AHGs), introduced by Congress through the GSE Act of 1992, and(More)
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