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Electron diffraction via the transmission electron microscope is a powerful method for characterizing the structure of materials, including perfect crystals and defect structures. The advantages of electron diffraction over other methods, e.g., x-ray or neutron, arise from the extremely short wavelength (≈2 pm), the strong atomic scattering, and the ability(More)
The goal of the Robust Affordable Next Generation Energy Storage System (RANGE)-BASF program is to provide an alternative solution for the energy storage media that powers electric vehicles other than the existing Li-ion battery. With the use of a rare-earth-free metal hydride (MH) as the active negative electrode material, together with a core-shell type(More)
We have fabricated a series of composition spreads consisting of ferroelectric BaTiO 3 and piezomagnetic CoFe 2 O 4 layers of varying thicknesses modulated at nanometer level in order to explore artificial magnetoelectric thin-film heterostructures. Scanning microwave microscopy and scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy were used(More)
We have fabricated Mg x Zn 1Ϫx O epitaxial composition spreads where the composition across the chip is linearly varied from ZnO to MgO. By using a scanning x-ray microdiffractometer and transmission electron microscopy, we have mapped the phase evolution across the spread. We have discovered a unique growth relationship between cubic and hexagonal Mg x Zn(More)
The grain boundaries of three Laves phase-related body-center-cubic (bcc) solid-solution, metal hydride (MH) alloys with different phase abundances were closely examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and more importantly, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. By using EBSD, we were able to(More)
This work attempts to optimize past research results on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) using the fabrication processes at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory so as to achieve a high degree of {001} texture and improved piezoelectric properties. A comparative study was performed between Ti/Pt and TiO 2 /Pt bottom electrodes. The results indicate that the use of(More)
Chemical and structural heterogeneity and the resulting interaction of coexisting phases can lead to extraordinary behaviours in oxides, as observed in piezoelectric materials at morphotropic phase boundaries and relaxor ferroelectrics. However, such phenomena are rare in metallic alloys. Here we show that, by tuning the presence of structural heterogeneity(More)
We report on the synthesis of PbTiO 3 – CoFe 2 O 4 multiferroic nanocomposites and continuous tuning of their ferroelectric and magnetic properties as a function of the average composition on thin-film composition spreads. The highest dielectric constant and nonlinear dielectric signal was observed at ͑PbTiO 3 ͒ 85 – ͑CoFe 2 O 4 ͒ 15 , where robust(More)
Epitaxial LiCoO2 (LCO) thin films of different orientations were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in order to model single-crystal behavior during electrochemical reaction. This paper demonstrates that deposition of conductive SrRuO3 between a SrTiO3 (STO) substrate and an LCO film allows (1) epitaxial growth of LCO with orientation determined by(More)
The microstructure of an annealed alloy with a Zr8Ni21 composition was studied by both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The presence of three phases, Zr8Ni21, Zr2Ni7, and Zr7Ni10, was confirmed by SEM/X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy compositional mapping and TEM electron diffraction. Distribution of the(More)