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To determine the role of CD8(+) T cells in controlling simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in vivo, we examined the effect of depleting this cell population using an anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody, OKT8F. There was on average a 99.9% reduction of CD8 cells in peripheral blood in six infected Macaca mulatta treated with OKT8F. The apparent CD8(More)
The role of the thymus in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains unclear. We developed an assay to quantify the number of recent thymic emigrants in blood based on the detection of a major excisional DNA byproduct (termed alpha1 circle) of T cell receptor rearrangement. By studying 532 normal individuals, we found that alpha1 circle numbers in blood remain high for the(More)
Viral and host factors influence the rate of HIV-1 disease progression. For HIV-1 to fuse, a CD4+ cell must express a co-receptor that the virus can use. The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are used by R5 and X4 viruses, respectively. Most new infections involve transmission of R5 viruses, but variants can arise later that also use CXCR4 (R5-X4 or X4(More)
BACKGROUND Studies relating certain chemokine and chemokine receptor gene alleles with the outcome of HIV-1 infection have yielded inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE To examine postulated associations of genetic alleles with HIV-1 disease progression. DESIGN Meta-analysis of individual-patient data. SETTING 19 prospective cohort studies and case-control(More)
OBJECTIVES Several natural polymorphisms in the genes for the human CC-chemokine receptors CCR5 and CCR2 are associated with HIV-1 disease. The CCR2-64I genetic variant [a G to A substitution resulting in a valine (V) to isoleucine (I) change at position 64] is in strong linkage disequilibrium with a mutation within the CCR5 regulatory region (CCR5-59653T).(More)
The awareness of the threat of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of the disease anthrax, as a biowarfare and bioterrorism weapon has revived the development of new technologies for rapid and accurate detection of virulent isolates in environmental and clinical samples. Here we explore the utility of molecular beacon real-time PCR technology for(More)
Members of HIV-1 group M are responsible for the vast majority of AIDS cases worldwide and have been classified on the basis of their phylogenetic relationships into nine roughly equidistant clades, termed subtypes. Although there are no known phenotypic correlates for these genotypes, the disproportionate spread of certain of these lineages has been taken(More)
The most high-risk population for HCV transmission worldwide today are intravenous drug users. HCV genotypes in the general population in Cyprus demonstrate a polyphyletic infection and include subtypes associated with intravenous drug users. The prevalence of HCV, HBV, and HIV infection, HCV genotypes and risk factors among intravenous drug users in Cyprus(More)
We have designed a novel, precise, and sensitive assay to measure unspliced (US) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1-infected individuals by using real-time PCR and molecular beacons. Individuals were classified as either well suppressed (WS) or partially suppressed, based on longitudinal(More)