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The sequenced members of a novel family of small, hydrophobic, bacterial multidrug-resistance efflux proteins, which we have designated the small multidrug resistance (SMR) protein family, are identified and analysed. Two distinct clusters of proteins were identified within this family: (i) small multidrug efflux systems; and (ii) Sug proteins, potentially(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence (321 bp) of smr (staphylococcal multidrug resistance), a gene coding for efflux-mediated multidrug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, was determined by using two different plasmids as DNA templates. The smr gene product (identical to products of ebr and qacC/D genes) was shown to be homologous to a new family of small(More)
Multidrug transport system in proteoliposomes was reconstituted using the highly purified membrane transport protein responsible for bacterial multidrug resistance. This protein (named Smr, for staphylococcal multidrug resistance) consists of 107 amino acid residues and displays four putative transmembrane domains. The Smr protein was tagged with a FLAG(More)
In this study the hypothesis considering the requirement for an electrochemical proton gradient in the injection of phage T4 DNA into Escherichia coli cell has been verified experimentally. The phage caused a reversible depolarization of cell membrane, while phage 'ghosts' induced an irreversible depolarization. The phage infection was strictly dependent on(More)
A general mechanism of the nucleic acids transport through bacterial membranes during genetic transformation, transfection, viral infection and bacterial conjugation, has been developed. The uptake of nucleic acid occurs due to the symport with H+ ions down to an electrochemical potential gradient ("minus" inside) generated by respiration or ATP hydrolysis(More)