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Autophagy-related gene (Atg) 5 is a gene product required for the formation of autophagosomes. Here, we report that Atg5, in addition to the promotion of autophagy, enhances susceptibility towards apoptotic stimuli. Enforced expression of Atg5-sensitized tumour cells to anticancer drug treatment both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, silencing the Atg5(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase enzymes have been implicated in degenerative processes like tumor cell invasion, metastasis, and arthritis. Specific metalloproteinase inhibitors have been used to block tumor cell proliferation. We have examined the interaction of batimastat (BB-94) with a metalloproteinase [atrolysin C (Ht-d), EC 3.4.24.42] active site at(More)
ALK is involved in the onset of several tumors. Crizotinib (XalkoriTM), a potent ALK inhibitor, represents the current front-line treatment for ALK+ NSCLC and shows great clinical efficacy. However, resistant disease often develops after initial response. ASP3026 is a novel second-generation ALK inhibitor with activity on crizotinib-resistant ALK-L1196M(More)
In the resolution of inflammatory responses, neutrophils rapidly undergo apoptosis. We describe a new proapoptotic pathway in which cathepsin D directly activates caspase-8. Cathepsin D is released from azurophilic granules in neutrophils in a caspase-independent but reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. Under inflammatory conditions, the translocation(More)
Tautomers are often disregarded in computer-aided molecular modeling applications. Little is known about the different tautomeric states of a molecule and they are rarely registered in chemical databases. Tautomeric forms of a molecule differ in shape, functional groups, surface, and hydrogen-bonding pattern. Calculation of physical-chemical properties and(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) thymidine kinase (TK) exhibits an extensive substrate diversity for nucleobases and sugar moieties, in contrast to other TKs. This substrate diversity is the crucial molecular basis of selective antiviral and suicide gene therapy. The mechanisms of substrate binding of HSV 1 TK were studied by means of site-directed(More)
Tuberculosis is considered to be one of the world's deadliest disease with 2 million deaths each year. The need for new antitubercular drugs is further exacerbated by the emergence of drug-resistance strains. Despite multiple recent efforts, the majority of the hits discovered by traditional target-based screening showed low efficiency in vivo. Therefore,(More)
Thyroid neoplasia is frequently associated with rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene mutations that cause hyperactivation of RET kinase activity. Selective inhibition of RET-mediated signaling should lead to an efficacious therapy. SU5416 is a potent inhibitor of vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor, c-Kit, and FLT-3 receptor(More)
In recent years, it has become clear that the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a valid target in the treatment of a variety of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, anxiety, and nicotine addiction. As with most membrane proteins, information on the three-dimensional (3D) structure of nAChR is limited to data from electron microscopy,(More)
BACKGROUND Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), a major parasitic disease spread in Africa, urgently needs novel targets and new efficacious chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, we discovered that 4-[5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-2H-pyrazol-3-yl]morpholine (compound 1) exhibits specific antitrypanosomal activity with an IC(50) of 1.0 microM on Trypanosoma brucei(More)