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Opium is one of the world's oldest drugs, and its derivatives morphine and codeine are among the most used clinical drugs to relieve severe pain. These prototypical opioids produce analgesia as well as many undesirable side effects (sedation, apnoea and dependence) by binding to and activating the G-protein-coupled µ-opioid receptor (µ-OR) in the central(More)
Opium is one of the world's oldest drugs, and its derivatives morphine and codeine are among the most used clinical drugs to relieve severe pain. These prototypical opioids produce analgesia as well as many undesirable side effects (sedation, apnoea and dependence) by binding to and activating the G-protein-coupled m-opioid receptor (m-OR) in the central(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven-transmembrane proteins that mediate most cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters. They are the largest group of therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. Recent crystal structures of GPCRs have revealed structural conservation extending from the orthosteric ligand-binding site in the(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to a chemically diverse plethora of signal transduction molecules. The notion that GPCRs also signal without an external chemical trigger, i.e., in a constitutive or spontaneous manner, resulted in a paradigm shift in the field of GPCR pharmacology. The discovery of constitutive GPCR activity and the fact that(More)
Glycoprotein hormone receptors [thyrotropin (TSHr), luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (LH/CGr), follicle stimulating hormone (FSHr)] are rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors with a large extracellular N-terminal portion responsible for hormone recognition and binding. In structural models, this ectodomain is composed of two cysteine clusters(More)
CCR5 is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by the chemokines RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted), macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha and 1beta, and monocyte chemotactic protein 2 and is the main co-receptor for the macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus strains. We have identified a sequence motif (TXP) in(More)
The beta(2)-adrenoceptor (beta(2)AR) was one of the first Family A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) shown to form oligomers in cellular membranes, yet we still know little about the number and arrangement of protomers in oligomers, the influence of ligands on the organization or stability of oligomers, or the requirement for other proteins to promote(More)
Recently, three naturally occurring mutations in the serpentine region of the FSH receptor (FSHr) (D567N and T449I/A) have been identified in three families with spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). All mutant receptors displayed abnormally high sensitivity to human chorionic gonadotropin and, in addition, D567N and T449A displayed(More)
In glycoprotein hormone receptors, a subfamily of rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors, the recognition and activation steps are carried out by separate domains of the proteins. Specificity of recognition of the hormones thyrotropin (TSH), lutropin (LH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and follitropin (FSH) involves leucine-rich repeats (LRRs)(More)
The extended classic ternary complex model predicts that a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) exists in only two interconvertible states: an inactive R, and an active R(*). However, different structural active R(*) complexes may exist in addition to a silent inactive R ground state (Rg). Here we demonstrate, in a cellular context, that several R(*) states of(More)