Leonardo Pardo

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Opium is one of the world's oldest drugs, and its derivatives morphine and codeine are among the most used clinical drugs to relieve severe pain. These prototypical opioids produce analgesia as well as many undesirable side effects (sedation, apnoea and dependence) by binding to and activating the G-protein-coupled µ-opioid receptor (µ-OR) in the central(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven-transmembrane proteins that mediate most cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters. They are the largest group of therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. Recent crystal structures of GPCRs have revealed structural conservation extending from the orthosteric ligand-binding site in the(More)
Opium is one of the world’s oldest drugs, and its derivatives morphine and codeine are among the most used clinical drugs to relieve severe pain. These prototypical opioids produce analgesia as well as many undesirable side effects (sedation, apnoea and dependence) by binding to and activating the G-protein-coupled m-opioid receptor (m-OR) in the central(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to a chemically diverse plethora of signal transduction molecules. The notion that GPCRs also signal without an external chemical trigger, i.e., in a constitutive or spontaneous manner, resulted in a paradigm shift in the field of GPCR pharmacology. The discovery of constitutive GPCR activity and the fact that(More)
CCR5 is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by the chemokines RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted), macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha and 1beta, and monocyte chemotactic protein 2 and is the main co-receptor for the macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus strains. We have identified a sequence motif (TXP) in(More)
Glycoprotein hormone receptors [thyrotropin (TSHr), luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (LH/CGr), follicle stimulating hormone (FSHr)] are rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors with a large extracellular N-terminal portion responsible for hormone recognition and binding. In structural models, this ectodomain is composed of two cysteine clusters(More)
In glycoprotein hormone receptors, a subfamily of rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors, the recognition and activation steps are carried out by separate domains of the proteins. Specificity of recognition of the hormones thyrotropin (TSH), lutropin (LH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and follitropin (FSH) involves leucine-rich repeats (LRRs)(More)
G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteromers are macromolecular complexes with unique functional properties different from those of its individual protomers. Little is known about what determines the quaternary structure of GPCR heteromers resulting in their unique functional properties. In this study, using resonance energy transfer techniques in(More)
The relationship between the Ser, Thr, and Cys side-chain conformation (chi(1) = g(-), t, g(+)) and the main-chain conformation (phi and psi angles) has been studied in a selection of protein structures that contain alpha-helices. The statistical results show that the g(-) conformation of both Ser and Thr residues decreases their phi angles and increases(More)
Functionally required conformational plasticity of transmembrane proteins implies that specific structural motifs have been integrated in transmembrane helices. Surveying a database of transmembrane helices and the large family of G-protein coupled receptors we identified a series of overrepresented motifs associating Pro with either Ser or Thr. Thus, we(More)