Leonardo J. M. Carvalho

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The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax resistance to available anti-malarial drugs represents a major drawback in the control of malaria and its associated morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoresistance profile of P. falciparum and P. vivax to commonly used anti-plasmodial drugs in a(More)
BACKGROUND Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in C57Bl/6 mice induces cerebral malaria (CM), which reproduces, to a large extent, the pathological features of human CM. However, experimental CM incidence is variable (50-100%) and the period of incidence may present a range as wide as 6-12 days post-infection. The poor predictability of which and when(More)
BACKGROUND Low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays a role in the pathogenesis of human as well as of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) caused by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA). ECM is partially prevented by administration of the NO-donor dipropylenetriamine NONOate (DPTA-NO) at high concentration (1 mg/mouse), which also induces major side effects such(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebral malaria (CM) is a lethal complication of Plasmodium falciparum infections. In the Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) murine model, CM is associated with marked brain inflammation, increased expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules and leukocyte and platelet accumulation in brain vessels, causing vascular occlusion and decreased blood(More)
This experimental model was designed to assess the mouse pial microcirculation during acute and chronic, physiological and pathophysiological hemodynamic, inflammatory and metabolic conditions, using in vivo fluorescence microscopy. A closed cranial window is placed over the left parieto-occipital cortex of the mice. Local microcirculation is recorded in(More)
Cerebrovascular dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. In experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA, cerebrovascular dysfunction characterized by vascular constriction, occlusion and damage results in impaired perfusion and reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygenation, and has been linked to low(More)
BACKGROUND Immune responses to malaria blood stage infection are in general defective, with the need for long-term exposure to the parasite to achieve immunity, and with the development of immunopathology states such as cerebral malaria in many cases. One of the potential reasons for the difficulty in developing protective immunity is the poor development(More)
The goal of this study was to evaluate the antibody response induced by Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) in naturally exposed individuals from the Brazilian Amazon region (Rondonia State). The results showed that most individuals had IgG against two well-defined regions within P. falciparum GLURP, the relatively conserved N-terminal(More)
Administration of the exogenous nitric oxide (NO) donor dipropylenetriamine-NONOate (DPTA-NO) to mice during Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection largely prevents development of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). However, a high dose (1 mg/mouse twice a day) is necessary and causes potent side effects such as marked hypotension. In the present study we(More)
OBJECTIVE The effect of castration and subsequent replacement of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or estradiol on parasitemia, mortality and incidence of cerebral malaria (CM) was evaluated in CBA mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. METHODS Female mice were castrated, and groups of 12-15 animals received daily injections of DHEA, estradiol or saline.(More)