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It is well established that attention modulates visual processing in extrastriate cortex. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. A consistent observation is that attention has its greatest impact on neuronal responses when multiple stimuli appear together within a cell's receptive field. One way to explain this is to assume that multiple(More)
Many neurons in extrastriate visual cortex have large receptive fields, and this may lead to significant computational problems whenever multiple stimuli fall within a single field. Previous studies have suggested that when multiple stimuli fall within a cell's receptive field, they compete for the cell's response in a manner that can be biased in favor of(More)
We often search for a face in a crowd or for a particular object in a cluttered environment. In this type of visual search, memory interacts with attention: the mediating neural mechanisms should include a stored representation of the object and a means for selecting that object from among others in the scene. Here we test whether neurons in inferior(More)
Efficient goal-directed behavior in a crowded world is crucially mediated by visual selective attention (VSA), which regulates deployment of cognitive resources toward selected, behaviorally relevant visual objects. Acting as a filter on perceptual representations, VSA allows preferential processing of relevant objects and concurrently inhibits traces of(More)
Responses of neurons in inferior temporal cortex during memory-guided visual search. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 2918-2940, 1998. A typical scene will contain many different objects, few of which are relevant to behavior at any given moment. Thus attentional mechanisms are needed to select relevant objects for visual processing and control over behavior. We(More)
Reward-related mesolimbic dopamine steers animal behavior, creating automatic approach toward reward-associated objects and avoidance of objects unlikely to be beneficial. Theories of dopamine suggest that this reflects underlying biases in perception and attention, with reward enhancing the representation of reward-associated stimuli such that attention is(More)
Outcomes of actions, in the form of rewards and punishments, are known to shape behavior. For example, an action followed by reward will be more readily elicited on subsequent encounters with the same stimuli and context -- a phenomenon known as the law of effect. These consequences of rewards (and punishments) are important because they reinforce adaptive(More)
In a typical scene with many different objects, attentional mechanisms are needed to select relevant objects for visual processing and control over behavior. To test the role of area V4 in the selection of objects based on non-spatial features, we recorded from V4 neurons in the monkey, using a visual search paradigm. A cue stimulus was presented at the(More)
By using a simple reaction time (RT) paradigm we have investigated the spatial distribution of the benefits and costs of voluntarily directed attention and of the inhibitory after-effects of covert orienting. In the first experiment subjects deliberately allocated attention to each one of five stimulus positions disposed along the horizontal meridian, while(More)
Neural processing at most stages of the primate visual system is modulated by selective attention, such that behaviorally relevant information is emphasized at the expenses of irrelevant, potentially distracting information. The form of attention best understood at the cellular level is when stimuli at a given location in the visual field must be selected(More)