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Recent studies suggest that the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein modulates epithelial reduced glutathione (GSH) transport and when defective creates an antioxidant imbalance. To test whether the CFTR protein modulates lung antioxidant defenses in vivo, epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and lung tissue from CFTR knockout(More)
The pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) contains substrates, e.g., ascorbic acid (AH2), uric acid (UA), glutathione (GSH), proteins, and unsaturated lipids, which undergo facile reaction with inhaled ozone (O3). Reactions near the ELF gas/liquid interface likely provide the driving force for O3 absorption ("reactive absorption") and constrain O3(More)
The amounts of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generated by mitochondria under physiological conditions can be enhanced by cellular stress. This study tested the hypothesis that the response to hemin-induced stress, which includes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction, predisposes to oxidative damage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Hepatic mitochondria from(More)
Cystic fibrosis is a fatal genetic disorder involving dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR) resulting in progressive respiratory failure. Previous studies indicate that CFTR regulates cellular glutathione (GSH) transport and that dysfunctional CFTR is associated with chronic pulmonary oxidative stress. The cause and the(More)
Acute lung injury induced by reactive oxygen gases such as ozone (O(3)) is focal and site-selective. To define patterns of acute epithelial injury along intrapulmonary airways, we developed a new analytic approach incorporating labeling of permeable cells, airway microdissection, and laser scanning confocal microscopy, and applied it to isolated perfused(More)
The lung maintains an elevated level of glutathione (GSH) in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) compared to serum. The mechanism(s) by which the lung maintains high levels of ELF GSH and factors that modulate them are largely unexplored. We hypothesized that lung cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) modulates GSH efflux in response(More)
Beryllium (Be), the etiologic agent of chronic beryllium disease, is a toxic metal that induces apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages. We tested the hypothesis that Be stimulates the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which plays a role in Be-induced macrophage apoptosis. Mouse macrophages were exposed to 100 microM BeSO4 in the absence and(More)
Cardiac effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transactivator (Tat) are unclear, but Tat decreases liver glutathione (an important mitochondrial antioxidant) when ubiquitously expressed in transgenic mice (TG). With an alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter, Tat was selectively targeted to murine cardiac myocytes. One high-expression hemizygous(More)
Recent evidence suggests that inhaled ozone (O3) does not induce toxicity via direct epithelial interactions. Reactions with epithelial lining fluid (ELF) constituents limit cellular contact and generate products, including lipid ozonation products, postulated to initiate pathophysiological cascades. To delineate specific aspects of lipid ozonation product(More)
The toxicity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is linked to altered mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and subsequent disruption of cellular energetics. This manifests clinically as elevated concentrations of lactate in plasma. The mechanism(s) underlying how the changes in mtDNA replication lead to lactic acidosis remains unclear.(More)