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The U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Daubert modernized the long-standing Frye precedent and requires courts to make scientific judgments. Courts, however, are not well-equipped to parse scientific arguments and the Daubert criteria offer only a rudimentary framework for decision-making. To illustrate the problems, as well as possible ways for courts to(More)
Society increasingly holds schools responsible for the effectiveness of health promotion activities, such as drug abuse prevention efforts funded through the federal Safe and Drug-Free Schools program. Consequently, school districts use student surveys as a method for assessing trends and evaluating effects of programs on behavior. Because cost and(More)
Substance use theory and practice have traditionally focused on individuals who misuse substances or who are at risk for substance misuse, but this emphasis is shifting. The present study views both substance use and misuse systematically, assessing the relationships between the physical and social environments and substance use and misuse in dynamic(More)
Foreword Within the past several dren have been the focus of years, several congressional important mental health problems of chil-attention. The incidence of adolescent suicide , physical and sexual abuse of young children, alcohol and drug abuse by children, and psychiatric hospitalization of children and adolescents have been the focus of debate on the(More)
OBJECTIVES The dependence potential of benzodiazepine medications is now widely recognized, but uncertainty exists as to whether use of short half-life vs long half-life drugs results in greater dependence. The present study reports a meta-analysis of the extant research to evaluate the dependence potential of different types of benzodiazepines. METHOD(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined differences between the visibility of drugs and drug use in more than 2100 neighborhoods, challenging an assumption about drug use in poor, minority, and urban communities. METHODS A telephone survey assessed substance use and attitudes across 41 communities in an evaluation of a national community-based demand reduction(More)
A clinical assessment of the Mental Health Services Program for Youth, a national initiative to integrate systems and coordinate care for severely emotionally disturbed children, was designed to augment and enrich the larger evaluation of program structure. Case conferences were used as a method of examining the effects of collaborative systems of care on(More)
The evaluation of community-based programs poses special design and analysis problems. The present article focuses on two major types of errors that can occur in such evaluations: false positive--incorrectly declaring a program to be effective--and false negatives--incorrectly declaring a program to be ineffective. The evaluation of a national demonstration(More)
  • L Saxe
  • 1991
Despite substantial contrary scientific evidence, polygraph tests to detect deception continue to be employed in the United States. It is argued that polygraph tests (in particular, the Control Question Technique) lack construct validity. Polygraph tests do not assess deceptiveness, but rather are situations designed to elicit and assess fear. Correct(More)