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Mice homozygous for the recessive mutation osteopetrosis (op) on chromosome 3 have a restricted capacity for bone remodelling, and are severely deficient in mature macrophages and osteoclasts. Both cell populations originate from a common haemopoietic progenitor. As op/op mice are not cured by transplants of normal bone marrow cells, the defects in op/op(More)
Ethical considerations constrain the in vivo study of human hemopoietic stem cells (HSC). To overcome this limitation, small animal models of human HSC engraftment have been used. We report the development and characterization of a new genetic stock of IL-2R common gamma-chain deficient NOD/LtSz-scid (NOD-scid IL2Rgamma(null)) mice and document their(More)
Stem cell homing and repopulation are not well understood. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4 were found to be critical for murine bone marrow engraftment by human severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) repopulating stem cells. Treatment of human cells with antibodies to CXCR4 prevented engraftment. In vitro(More)
The scid mutation was backcrossed ten generations onto the NOD/Lt strain background, resulting in an immunodeficient stock (NOD/LtSz-scid/scid) with multiple defects in adaptive as well as nonadaptive immunologic function. NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice lack functional lymphoid cells and show little or no serum Ig with age. Although NOD/(Lt-)+/+ mice develop T(More)
Weeble mutant mice have severe locomotor instability and significant neuronal loss in the cerebellum and in the hippocampal CA1 field. Genetic mapping was used to localize the mutation to the gene encoding inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type I (Inpp4a), where a single nucleotide deletion results in a likely null allele. The substrates of INPP4A are(More)
"Humanized" mouse models created by engraftment of immunodeficient mice with human hematolymphoid cells or tissues are an emerging technology with broad appeal across multiple biomedical disciplines. However, investigators wishing to utilize humanized mice with engrafted functional human immune systems are faced with a myriad of variables to consider. In(More)
The culmination of decades of research on humanized mice is leading to advances in our understanding of human haematopoiesis, innate and adaptive immunity, autoimmunity, infectious diseases, cancer biology and regenerative medicine. In this Review, we discuss the development of these new generations of humanized mice, how they will facilitate translational(More)
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is the most common adult leukemia, characterized by the clonal expansion of immature myeloblasts initiating from rare leukemic stem (LS) cells. To understand the functional properties of human LS cells, we developed a primary human AML xenotransplantation model using newborn nonobese diabetic/severe combined(More)
The study of human hematopoietic cells and the human immune system is hampered by the lack of a suitable experimental model. Experimental data are presented showing that human fetal liver hematopoietic cells, human fetal thymus, and human fetal lymph node support the differentiation of mature human T cells and B cells after engraftment into mice with(More)
Significant advances in our understanding of the in vivo functions of human cells and tissues and the human immune system have resulted from the development of 'humanized' mouse strains that are based on severely immunodeficient mice with mutations in the interleukin-2 receptor common γ-chain locus. These mouse strains support the engraftment of a(More)