Leonard C. Schalkwyk

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Numeracy is as important as literacy and exhibits a similar frequency of disability. Although its etiology is relatively poorly understood, quantitative genetic research has demonstrated mathematical ability to be moderately heritable. In this first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of mathematical ability and disability, 10 out of 43 single nucleotide(More)
Children's intellectual development is influenced by both genetic inheritance and environmental experiences. Breastfeeding is one of the earliest such postnatal experiences. Breastfed children attain higher IQ scores than children not fed breast milk, presumably because of the fatty acids uniquely available in breast milk. Here we show that the association(More)
The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of small effect size that underlie complex traits poses a particular challenge for geneticists due to the large sample sizes and large numbers of genetic markers required for genomewide association scans. An efficient solution for screening purposes is to combine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)(More)
BACKGROUND Quantitative trait locus (QTL) theory predicts that genetic influence on complex traits involves multiple genes of small effect size. To detect QTL associations of small effect size, large samples and systematic screens of thousands of DNA markers are required. An efficient solution is to genotype case and control DNA pools using SNP microarrays.(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic influences underpinning complex traits are thought to involve multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of small effect size. Detection of such QTL associations requires systematic screening of large numbers of DNA markers within large sample populations. Using pooled DNA on SNP microarrays to screen for allelic frequency differences(More)
SUMMARY Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies using thousands of high-density SNP microarrays are becoming an essential tool in the search for loci related to heritable variation in many phenotypes. However, the cost of GWA remains beyond the reach of many researchers. Fortunately, the majority of statistical power can still be obtained by(More)
Childhood general cognitive ability (g) is important for a wide range of outcomes in later life, from school achievement to occupational success and life expectancy. Large-scale association studies will be essential in the quest to identify variants that make up the substantial genetic component implicated by quantitative genetic studies. We conducted a(More)
Animal studies are important for the identification and functional characterization of the biological substrates underlying complex psychiatric disorders. However, novel insights into the relationship between the genome and behavior are needed for the development of fully valid translational models. Based on the notion that in different species, the same(More)
BACKGROUND We report an attempt to extend the previously successful approach of combining SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) microarrays and DNA pooling (SNP-MaP) employing high-density microarrays. Whereas earlier studies employed a range of Affymetrix SNP microarrays comprising from 10 K to 500 K SNPs, this most recent investigation used the 6.0 chip(More)
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