Leonard Amaral

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Expression of eight transporter genes of Escherichia coli K-12 and its DeltaacrAB mutant prior to and after induction of both strains to tetracycline resistance and after reversal of induced resistance were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. All transporter genes were overexpressed after induced resistance with acrF being 80-fold more(More)
The emergence of infections caused by multi- or pan-resistant bacteria in the hospital or in the community settings is an increasing health concern. Albeit there is no single resistance mechanism behind multiresistance, multidrug efflux pumps, proteins that cells use to detoxify from noxious compounds, seem to play a key role in the emergence of these(More)
Diclofenac sodium (Dc), an anti-inflammatory agent, has remarkable inhibitory action both against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant clinical isolates of various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of Dc to protect mice from a virulent Salmonella infection. Dc injected at 1.5 microg/g and 3.0 microg/g(More)
The essential oil of Helichrysum italicum significantly reduces the multidrug resistance of Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Combinations of the two most active fractions of the essential oil with each other or with phenylalanine arginine beta-naphthylamide yield synergistic activity. Geraniol, a(More)
BACKGROUND Membrane permeability is the first step involved in resistance of bacteria to an antibiotic. The number and activity of efflux pumps and outer membrane proteins that constitute porins play major roles in the definition of intrinsic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria that is altered under antibiotic exposure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS(More)
The INNO-LiPA Rif.TB assay for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains and the detection of rifampin (RIF) resistance has been evaluated with 360 smear-positive respiratory specimens from an area of high incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The sensitivity when compared to conventional identification/culture(More)
Chemoresistance presents a general health problem concerning the therapy of infectious disease and cancer. In this context, the worldwide dissemination of "multidrugresistant" (MDR) pathogens has severely reduced the efficacy of our antimicrobial weapons and dramatically increased the frequency of therapeutic failure. Because MDR bacterial infections(More)
The phenothiazines chlorpromazine (CPZ) and thioridazine (TZ) have equal in vitro activities against antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These compounds have not been used as anti-M. tuberculosis agents because their in vitro activities take place at concentrations which are beyond those that are clinically achievable. In(More)
We evaluated immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 health-care workers (HCWs) and 10 non-HCWs and correlated their immune status with the development of active tuberculosis (TB). Twenty individuals were randomly recruited, tested, and monitored longitudinally for TB presentation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from donors were(More)
The antimicrobial activity of synthetic, non-chemotherapeutic compounds, such as the phenothiazine, methylene blue, has been known since the time of Ehrlich (1854-1915). In this context the term 'non-antibiotics' is taken to include a variety of compounds which are employed in the management of pathological conditions of a non-infectious aetiology, but(More)