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The emergence of infections caused by multi- or pan-resistant bacteria in the hospital or in the community settings is an increasing health concern. Albeit there is no single resistance mechanism behind multiresistance, multidrug efflux pumps, proteins that cells use to detoxify from noxious compounds, seem to play a key role in the emergence of these(More)
BACKGROUND Membrane permeability is the first step involved in resistance of bacteria to an antibiotic. The number and activity of efflux pumps and outer membrane proteins that constitute porins play major roles in the definition of intrinsic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria that is altered under antibiotic exposure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS(More)
BACKGROUND Protoapigenone (PA), a natural flavonoid possessing an unusual p-quinol moiety on its B ring, is a prospective novel lead compound against cancer currently in development, together with WYC0209, a potent synthetic PA analog. Structure activity relationships (SAR) concerning different 1'-O-alkyl side-chains were also studied on two sets of(More)
In this study, we aimed to answer the following question: 'How does a bacterium become so resistant to a given antibiotic even though the levels of antibiotic to which it has become resistant remained constant in the patient?'Escherichia coli AG100 strain induced to high-level resistance due to overexpression of an AcrAB efflux pump was serially cultured in(More)
Diclofenac sodium (Dc), an anti-inflammatory agent, has remarkable inhibitory action both against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant clinical isolates of various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of Dc to protect mice from a virulent Salmonella infection. Dc injected at 1.5 microg/g and 3.0 microg/g(More)
The phenothiazines chlorpromazine (CPZ) and thioridazine (TZ) have equal in vitro activities against antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These compounds have not been used as anti-M. tuberculosis agents because their in vitro activities take place at concentrations which are beyond those that are clinically achievable. In(More)
Promethazine has been recognised as an effective antiplasmid agent in cultures containing a single bacterial species such as Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of heterogenity of the microbial flora on plasmid elimination by promethazine in a(More)
Chemoresistance presents a general health problem concerning the therapy of infectious disease and cancer. In this context, the worldwide dissemination of "multidrugresistant" (MDR) pathogens has severely reduced the efficacy of our antimicrobial weapons and dramatically increased the frequency of therapeutic failure. Because MDR bacterial infections(More)
BACKGROUND Human monocyte-derived macrophages that have little killing activity of their own kill intracellular Staphylococcus aureus when cultured in the presence of inhibitors of calcium and potassium efflux pumps. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of inhibitors such as ouabain, reserpine and verapamil in the killing activity of macrophages(More)
Bacterial plasmids have a major impact on metabolic function. Lactose fermentation of E. coli or hemolysin B transporter expressed by the plasmids that carry these respective genes could be readily obviated by heterocyclic compounds that readily bind to plasmid DNA. These compounds could also reverse the resistance to antibiotics of E. coli, Enterobacter,(More)