Leonard A. Smith

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A dynamical model based on three coupled ordinary differential equations is introduced which is capable of generating realistic synthetic electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The operator can specify the mean and standard deviation of the heart rate, the morphology of the PQRST cycle, and the power spectrum of the RR tachogram. In particular, both respiratory(More)
Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for many diverse anaerobic spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria that have the common property of producing botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). The BoNTs are exoneurotoxins that can cause severe paralysis and death in humans and other animal species. A collection of 174 C. botulinum strains was examined by amplified(More)
An unstructured growth model for the recombinant methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris Mut(+) expressing the heavy-chain fragment C of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A [BoNT/A(H(c))], was successfully established in quasi-steady state fed-batch fermentations with varying cell densities. The model describes the relationships between specific growth rate and(More)
The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause the paralytic human disease botulism and are one of the highest-risk threat agents for bioterrorism. To generate a pharmaceutical to prevent or treat botulism, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated by phage display and evaluated for neutralization of BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) in vivo. Although no single mAb(More)
The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are category A biothreat agents which have been the focus of intensive efforts to develop vaccines and antibody-based prophylaxis and treatment. Such approaches must take into account the extensive BoNT sequence variability; the seven BoNT serotypes differ by up to 70% at the amino acid level. Here, we have analyzed 49(More)
Seven types (A-G) of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) target peripheral cholinergic neurons where they selectively proteolyze SNAP-25 (BoNT/A, BoNT/C1, and BoNT/E), syntaxin1 (BoNT/C1), and synaptobrevin (BoNT/B, BoNT/D, BoNT/F, and BoNT/G), SNARE proteins responsible for transmitter release, to cause neuromuscular paralysis but of different durations. BoNT/A(More)
The problem of assessing the quality of an operational forecasting system that produces probabilistic forecasts is addressed using information theory. A measure of the quality of the forecasting scheme, based on the amount of a data compression it allows, is outlined. This measure, called ignorance, is a logarithmic scoring rule that is a modified version(More)
Two approaches were used to correlate the Aedes aegypti genetic linkage map to the physical map. STS markers were developed for previously mapped RFLP-based genetic markers so that large genomic clones from cosmid libraries could be found and placed to the metaphase chromosome physical maps using standard FISH methods. Eight cosmids were identified that(More)
Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for at least four diverse species that are defined by the expression of one (monovalent) or two (bivalent) of seven different C. botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, A-G). The four species have been classified as C. botulinum Groups I-IV. The presence of bont genes in strains representing the different Groups is(More)
Adaptive observation strategies in numerical weather prediction aim to improve forecasts by exploiting additional observations at locations that are themselves optimized with respect to the current state of the atmosphere. The role played by an inexact estimate of the current state of the atmosphere (i.e., error in the ‘‘analysis’’) in restricting adaptive(More)