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Allometric analyses of hair densities in 23 anthropoid primate taxa reveal that increasingly massive primates have systematically fewer hairs per equal unit of body surface. Considering the absence of effective sweating in monkeys and apes, the negative allometry of relative hair density may represent an architectural adaptation to thermal constraints(More)
There is increasing evidence for an important role of adverse early experience on the development of major psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), an endogenous neuropeptide, is the primary physiological regulator of the mammalian stress response. Grown nonhuman primates who were exposed as infants to adverse early rearing(More)
BACKGROUND In an earlier study, infant primates were nursed by mothers randomly assigned to variable foraging demand (VFD) or nonvariable foraging conditions (non-VFD). A group of grown VFD-reared subjects demonstrated elevations of cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor concentrations and decreased CSF cortisol levels vs non-VFD(More)
It has been proposed that certain adverse early experiences may play a role in determining subsequent susceptibility to adult anxiety and affective disorders and this relationship may be the result of altered neurodevelopment of the noradrenergic and/or serotonergic systems. In this study of nonhuman primates, the predictability of foraging requirements for(More)
3 groups of macaque mother-infant dyads were observed while each lived in ecological settings that differed in their level of foraging demand and, hence, the amount of work each mother was required to perform to obtain her daily rations. 2 groups (LFD and HFD) lived in stable low- and high-demand environments, respectively. The third group (VFD) lived in a(More)
Bonnet macaques that had been reared from 3 to 6 months of age in experimental environments that appeared to adversely affect their ability to separate from mother to explore a novel physical environment in dyadic assessments shortly after the rearing experience were tested during late adolescence, an average of 2.5 years later, under conditions of(More)
The two neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing-factor (CRF) and oxytocin (OT) may produce opposing behavioral effects - elevations of the former have been associated with anxiety and social vigilance and reductions of the latter with reduced social affiliation. We sought to test the hypothesis that, within the primate macaque genus, the more gregarious,(More)
The reaction to removal of the mother was studied in 4 group-living pigtail monkey infants. All showed distress, with 3 progressing to a state of deep depression similar to the anaclitic depression of human infants following separation, as described by Spitz. The only infant not showing deep depression was the offspring of the dominant female. The stages of(More)
When primate infants are reared during the first half-year of life in an environment in which their mothers face uncertain requirements for food procurement (variable foraging demand [VFD]), long-lasting behavioral and neurodevelopmental consequences ensue, including increases in timidity and social subordinance as well as alterations in stress-related(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term behavioral, immunologic, and neurochemical alterations have been found in primates exposed to adverse early rearing. METHODS Bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) mother-infant dyads were exposed to uncertain requirements for food procurement (variable foraging demand, VFD) for a few months. Ten years later, these offspring and age- and(More)