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Aberrant activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a common molecular event in a variety of pathological settings, including genetic tumor syndromes, cancer, and obesity. However, the cell-intrinsic consequences of mTORC1 activation remain poorly defined. Through a combination of unbiased genomic, metabolomic, and bioinformatic(More)
Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
Amino acids are required for activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase which regulates protein translation, cell growth, and autophagy. Cell surface transporters that allow amino acids to enter the cell and signal to mTOR are unknown. We show that cellular uptake of L-glutamine and its subsequent rapid efflux in the presence of essential(More)
The duration of intracellular signalling is associated with distinct biological responses, but how cells interpret differences in signal duration are unknown. We show that the immediate early gene product c-Fos functions as a sensor for ERK1 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1) and ERK2 signal duration. When ERK activation is transient, its activity(More)
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (mTOR) pathway is often constitutively activated in human tumor cells, providing unique opportunities for anticancer therapeutic intervention. NVP-BEZ235 is an imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline derivative that inhibits PI3K and mTOR kinase activity by binding to the ATP-binding cleft(More)
Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs as a side effect of treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone (DEX) and is a hallmark of cachectic syndromes associated with increased cortisol levels. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MuRF1 (muscle RING finger protein 1) is transcriptionally upregulated by DEX treatment. Differentiated myotubes treated with DEX(More)
Although the mechanisms that lead to activation of the Ras, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/ERK-MAPK) signaling pathway have been studied intensively, the fundamental principles that determine how activation of ERK signaling can result in distinct biological outcomes have only recently received attention. Factors(More)
Inhibitors of the oncogenic Ras-MAPK pathway have been intensely pursued as therapeutics. Targeting this pathway, however, presents challenges due to the essential role of MAPK in homeostatic functions. The phosphorylation and activation of MAPK substrates is regulated by protein-protein interactions with MAPK docking sites. Active ERK1/2 (extracellular(More)
Cells rely on autophagy to clear misfolded proteins and damaged organelles to maintain cellular homeostasis. In this study we use the new autophagy inhibitor PIK-III to screen for autophagy substrates. PIK-III is a selective inhibitor of VPS34 that binds a unique hydrophobic pocket not present in related kinases such as PI(3)Kα. PIK-III acutely inhibits(More)
Autophagy is a dynamic process of subcellular degradation, which has recently sparked great interest as it is now recognized to be involved in various developmental processes and various diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. Autophagy can function as a cytoprotective mechanism; however, it also has the capacity to cause cell death. A better(More)