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Adhesion to ECM is required for many cell functions including cytoskeletal organization, migration, and proliferation. We observed that when cells first adhere to extracellular matrix, they spread rapidly by extending filopodia-like projections and lamellipodia. These structures are similar to the Rac- and Cdc42-dependent structures observed in growth(More)
We describe a novel role for the ARF6 GTPase in the regulation of adherens junction (AJ) turnover in MDCK epithelial cells. Expression of a GTPase-defective ARF6 mutant, ARF6(Q67L), led to a loss of AJs and ruffling of the lateral plasma membrane via mechanisms that were mutually exclusive. ARF6-GTP-induced AJ disassembly did not require actin remodeling,(More)
The small GTPase Rac regulates cytoskeletal organization, cell cycle progression, gene expression and oncogenic transformation, processes that depend upon both soluble growth factors and adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). We now show that growth factors and adhesion to the ECM both contribute independently and approximately equally to Rac(More)
Cell migration and the regulation of cadherin-mediated homotypic cell-cell interactions are critical events during development, morphogenesis and wound healing. Aberrations in signalling pathways involved in the regulation of cell migration and cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion contribute to tumour invasion and metastasis. The rho family proteins,(More)
Rac is activated in response to various stimuli including growth factors and by adhesion to the extracellular matrix. However, how these stimuli ultimately result in Rac activation is poorly understood. The increase in intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i represents a ubiquitous second messenger system in cells, linking receptor activation to downstream signaling(More)
The small GTPase Rap is best characterized as a critical regulator of integrin-mediated cell adhesion, although its mechanism of action is not understood. Rap also influences the properties of other cell-surface receptors and biological processes, although whether these are a consequence of effects on integrins is not clear. We show here that Rap also plays(More)
Rho-like GTPases regulate both cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions and can influence the motile and invasive properties of tumour cells in vitro. Increased Rac signalling can promote either cell-cell adhesion or motility depending on the cell type and composition of the extracellular matrix. Ultimately, the balance of Rac and Rho activities and(More)
The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway is a critical regulator of cell growth, migration, and differentiation. Growth factor activation of MAP kinase in NIH 3T3 cells is strongly dependent upon integrin-mediated adhesion, an effect that contributes to the anchorage dependence of normal cell growth. We now show that expression of constructs that(More)
Epac1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G protein Rap and is involved in membrane-localized processes such as integrin-mediated cell adhesion and cell-cell junction formation. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) directly activates Epac1 by release of autoinhibition and in addition induces its translocation to the plasma membrane. Here, we show an(More)
Immortalized hepatocyte cell lines show only a weak resemblance to primary hepatocytes in terms of gene expression and function, limiting their value in predicting drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Furthermore, primary hepatocytes cultured on two-dimensional tissue culture plastic surfaces rapidly dedifferentiate losing their hepatocyte functions and(More)