Learn More
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) offers the possibility to determine moisture profiles in porous building materials. Moreover, the relaxation of the nuclear magnetic resonance signal can provide additional information on the water distribution in the microstructure. For mortar, it is shown that the transverse relaxation yields information on the(More)
The influence of temperature gradients on the drying of water-saturated porous networks has been studied. We have focussed on the influence of the temperature on the drying process via the equilibrium vapor density rhoe, because this is the most sensitive parameter with respect to variations of the temperature T. We have used a 2D model which accounts for(More)
In this paper we present a new dedicated NMR setup which is capable of measuring one-dimensional moisture profiles in heated porous materials. The setup, which is placed in the bore of a 1.5 T whole-body scanner, is capable of reaching temperatures up to 500 °C. Moisture and temperature profiles can be measured quasi simultaneously with a typical time(More)
Crystallization pressure of salt in porous materials is one of the mechanisms that may induce serious damage, for example, weathering of buildings and monuments of cultural heritage. Since this pressure also causes the solubility of the salt inside a porous material to differ from the bulk solubility, it can be assessed experimentally by measuring the(More)
Salts can damage building materials by chemical reactions or crystallization, which is a serious threat to cultural heritage. In order to develop better conservation techniques, more knowledge of the crystallization processes is needed. In a porous material, the size of a salt crystal is limited by the sizes of the pores. It has been predicted that as a(More)
Both cryoporometry and relaxometry are tools to determine the pore size distribution (PSD) of a porous material with NMR. The melting point depression is described by the Gibbs-Thomson equation, yielding the PSD from cryoporometry. The enhanced relaxivity is caused by the surface of the porous material, yielding the PSD from relaxometry. The description in(More)
Salt weathering is a major cause of deterioration of porous building materials. To obtain information about the mechanisms underlying these damage processes we have studied the moisture and ion transport. We measured the time evolution of NaCl saturated samples of fired-clay brick during one-sided drying using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The moisture(More)
A set-up especially designed for semi-simultaneous measurements of 1H, 23Na and 35Cl in ordinary cementitious materials using nuclear magnetic resonance was built. This setup makes use of the main field of a whole body magnetic resonance imaging system (Philips Intera), which has allowed us to combine two measurement setups into one, i.e., a 23Na/35Cl and a(More)
The coupled mass transfer and chemical reactions of a gel-forming compound in a two-phase system were recently analyzed in detail [Castelijns et al. J. Appl. Phys. 2006, 100, 024916]. In this successive work, the gel-forming chemical tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) was dissolved in a mineral oil and placed together with heavy water (D2O) in small cylinders.(More)