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OBJECTIVE Approximately 35% of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy do not respond to immunosuppressive treatment. A possible explanation for this finding is that only patients with active ophthalmopathy respond to immunosuppressive treatment, whereas patients with fibrotic end stage disease do not. To distinguish between these two groups and to predict the(More)
AIMS To determine the effectiveness and safety of three wall orbital decompression by the coronal approach in Graves' ophthalmopathy. METHODS The records of 125 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy, who had undergone three wall orbital decompression by coronal approach between April 1984 and October 1993, were studied retrospectively. Special attention(More)
Corticosteroids are usually given for management of Graves' ophthalmopathy, but they have many and serious side-effects. By comparison, retrobulbar irradiation is well tolerated, although its efficacy has been evaluated only in uncontrolled studies. Therefore, we did a double-blind randomised trial, in which 28 patients with moderately severe Graves'(More)
Patients with serious inflammatory Graves' ophthalmopathy should be treated with anti-inflammatory drugs or radiotherapy to prevent complications like fibrosis, while those with non-inflammatory ophthalmopathy may be treated by surgery immediately. It is often difficult, however, to distinguish inflammatory from non-inflammatory Graves' disease. We(More)
As a consequence of some puzzling motility disturbances in patients with blow-out fractures, a new anatomic approach to the human orbit was developed. This new approach revealed unknown connective tissue septa inside the orbit. These connective tissue septa were highly organized and formed an accessory locomotor system. This system is involved in pathologic(More)
Many clinicians have the impression that treatment of thyroid dysfunction ameliorates ophthalmopathy in Graves' disease. The aim of our study was to relate thyroid function to the severity of Graves' ophthalmopathy. We studied 90 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy and Graves' hyperthyroidism in whom severity of Graves' ophthalmopathy and thyroid function(More)
We have reviewed the literature in order to delineate the clinicopathologic definition of orbital pseudotumor, also called idiopathic nonspecific orbital inflammation. The clinical picture of orbital pseudotumor varies widely, with signs of mass effect, inflammation and/or infiltration. On computed tomography, orbital pseudotumor presents as a unilateral(More)
It is uncertain what is the most appropriate medical therapy for patients with severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. Therefore, we carried out a single-blind, randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy of prednisone with that of cyclosporine in 36 patients who had been euthyroid for at least two months. The two groups, each consisting of 18 patients, were(More)