Leo K. Niskanen

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CONTEXT The metabolic syndrome, a concurrence of disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, overweight and abdominal fat distribution, mild dyslipidemia, and hypertension, is associated with subsequent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite its high prevalence, little is known of the prospective association of the(More)
BACKGROUND Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes by enhancing urinary glucose excretion. We compared the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, with glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin. METHODS We undertook this 52 week,(More)
BACKGROUND The introduction of second-generation antipsychotic drugs during the 1990s is widely believed to have adversely affected mortality of patients with schizophrenia. Our aim was to establish the long-term contribution of antipsychotic drugs to mortality in such patients. METHODS Nationwide registers in Finland were used to compare the(More)
BACKGROUND Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used for more than a decade to treat high blood pressure, despite the lack of data from randomised intervention trials to show that such treatment affects cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) is a randomised intervention trial to compare the(More)
OBJECTIVE Little is known about the association of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness with development of the metabolic syndrome, which predisposes diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis. We studied the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with development of the metabolic syndrome (World Health(More)
The consumption of statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) has been increasing, and a substantial part of the middle-aged and elderly population use them continuously. Because a large fraction of the population is exposed, even a small excess of risk with respect to cancer should be considered. We carried out a record-linkage study in Finland utilizing(More)
The World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recently proposed definitions for the metabolic syndrome. Little is known of their validity, however. The authors assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the definitions of the metabolic syndrome for prevalent and incident diabetes mellitus in a Finnish(More)
OBJECTIVE Mild hypoandrogenism in men is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome, but the association with the metabolic syndrome itself using an accepted definition has not been described. DESIGN Men with the metabolic syndrome were identified and testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were determined in a population-based(More)
OBJECTIVE Having demonstrated short-term weight loss with liraglutide in this group of obese adults, we now evaluate safety/tolerability (primary outcome) and long-term efficacy for sustaining weight loss (secondary outcome) over 2 years. DESIGN A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 20-week study with 2-year extension (sponsor unblinded at 20(More)
High serum levels of total and LDL cholesterol are important risk factors in the development of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Cholesterol metabolism is affected by nutritional, environmental and genetic factors. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is widely expressed in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, has an important role in the(More)