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Childhood psychic trauma appears to be a crucial etiological factor in the development of a number of serious disorders both in childhood and in adulthood. Like childhood rheumatic fever, psychic trauma sets a number of different problems into motion, any of which may lead to a definable mental condition. The author suggests four characteristics related to(More)
OBJECTIVE The Challenger space shuttle explosion in January 1986 offered an opportunity to determine what, if any, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and bereavement normal latency-age children and adolescents would develop after a distant, horrifying event. METHOD With a structured interview, the authors assessed the symptoms of 153(More)
A 4-year follow-up study of 25 school-bus kidnapping victims and one child who narrowly missed the experience revealed that every child exhibited posttraumatic effects. Symptom severity was related to the child's prior vulnerabilities, family pathology, and community bonding. Important new findings included pessimism about the future, belief in omens and(More)
Twenty-three children involved in a school-bus kidnapping were studied from 5 to 13 months following the event. Each child suffered posttraumatic emotional sequelae. The author found that the children suffered from initial misperceptions, early fears of further trauma, hallucinations, and "omen" formation. Later they experienced posttraumatic symptoms(More)
OBJECTIVE The Challenger spacecraft explosion of Jan. 28, 1986, offered an opportunity to study the memories of normal latency and adolescent children of different emotional involvements following one sudden and distant disaster. How would children of various levels of concern express their memories? And if studied over time, how would these narratives(More)
Methods of conducting psychotherapy in the most severe forms of childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), especially in those traumas discovered very early in life, are rarely reported. This paper presents such a report and in the process emphasizes three elements of treatment: abreaction (full emotional expression of the traumatic experience),(More)