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Like vaccines, biologic proteins can be very immunogenic for reasons including route of administration, dose frequency and the underlying antigenicity of the therapeutic protein. Because the impact of immunogenicity can be quite severe, regulatory agencies are developing risk-based guidelines for immunogenicity screening. T cell epitopes are at the root of(More)
The outbreak of the novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza in the spring of 2009 took epidemiologists, immunologists, and vaccinologists by surprise and galvanized a massive worldwide effort to produce millions of vaccine doses to protect against this single virus strain. Of particular concern was the apparent lack of pre-existing antibody capable of eliciting(More)
Immunogenicity can be a major obstacle to successful protein drug therapy. Antidrug antibodies may neutralize therapeutic function, influence pharmacokinetics and, in some cases, lead to severe adverse effects. These effects depend on factors including dose, regimen, delivery route and contaminants, among others. Importantly, immunogenicity is a(More)
A novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza strain emerged in China in April 2013. Since its re-emergence in October-November 2013, the number of reported cases has accelerated; more than 220 laboratory-confirmed cases and 112 deaths (case fatality rate of 20-30%) have been reported. The resurgence of H7N9 has re-emphasized the importance of making faster and more(More)
High strain sequence variability, interference with innate immune mechanisms, and epitope deletion are all examples of strategies that pathogens have evolved to subvert host defenses. To this list we would add another strategy: immune camouflage. Pathogens whose epitope sequences are cross-conserved with multiple human proteins at the TCR-facing residues(More)
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a well recognized complication of solid organ transplantation (SOT) or bone marrow transplantation (BMT) associated with therapeutic immunosuppression (IS), first reported in 1968. Risk factors, therapy, and outcomes differ between PTLD observed following BMT and SOT. PTLD is a potentially fatal(More)
Our previous work involved the development of a recombinant fowlpox virus encoding survivin (FP-surv) vaccine that was evaluated for efficacy in mesothelioma mouse models. Results showed that FP-surv vaccination generated significant immune responses, which led to delayed tumor growth and improved animal survival. We have extended those previous findings in(More)