Lennert Steukers

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BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus infections are highly prevalent in humans. However, the current therapeutics suffer important drawbacks such as limited results in neonates, increasing occurrence of resistance and impeded treatment of stromal infections. Remarkably, interactions of herpesviruses with human mucosa, the locus of infection, remain poorly(More)
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the causative agent of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy, of which outbreaks are reported with increasing frequency throughout North America and Europe. This has resulted in its classification as a potentially emerging disease by the US Department of Agriculture. Recently, it was found that a single nucleotide(More)
Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is an infectious disease with variable clinical outcome. Outbreaks, causing important economic losses, are becoming more frequent. Currently, there is a shortage of pathogenesis studies performed with European strains. In the present study, eight seronegative ponies were experimentally inoculated with the Belgian strain of(More)
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a well-known disease-causing agent in cattle. There is little known detailed information on viral behavior with emphasis on host invasion at primary replication sites such as the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Therefore, an in vitro system of bovine upper respiratory tract (bURT) mucosa explants was set up to study(More)
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) replicates extensively in the epithelium of the upper respiratory tract, after which it can spread throughout the body via a cell-associated viremia in mononuclear leukocytes reaching the pregnant uterus and central nervous system. In a previous study, we were able to mimic the in vivo situation in an in vitro respiratory(More)
In 2008 and 2009 a large number of cases of haemorrhagic diathesis (HD) in neonatal calves were reported in different European countries. In Flanders, 84 cases of neonatal HD in 30 herds were reported in this period. The disease typically affects calves younger than 1 month old from different breed and gender. Prominent clinical signs are cutaneous(More)
In general, members of the Alphaherpesvirinae use the epithelium of the upper respiratory and/or genital tract as a preferential site for primary replication. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) may replicate at both sites and cause two major clinical entities designated as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and infectious pustular(More)
Several alphaherpesviruses breach the basement membrane during mucosal invasion. In the present study, the role of proteases in this process was examined. The serine protease-specific inhibitor AEBSF inhibited penetration of the basement membrane by the porcine alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV) by 88.1% without affecting lateral spread. Inhibitors(More)
During primary contact with susceptible hosts, microorganisms face an array of barriers that thwart their invasion process. Passage through the basement membrane (BM), a 50-100-nm-thick crucial barrier underlying epithelia and endothelia, is a prerequisite for successful host invasion. Such passage allows pathogens to reach nerve endings or blood vessels in(More)
Swine influenza virus (SIV) has a strong tropism for pig respiratory mucosa, which consists of a mucus layer, epithelium, basement membrane and lamina propria. Sialic acids present on the epithelial surface have long been considered to be determinants of influenza virus tropism. However, mucus which is also rich in sialic acids may serve as the first(More)