Lennart Schalk

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In German, nouns are assigned to one of the three gender classes. For most animal names, however, the assignment is independent of the referent's biological sex. We examined whether German-speaking children understand this independence of grammar from semantics or whether they assume that grammatical gender is mapped onto biological sex when drawing(More)
Science education aims at developing students' knowledge of scientific concepts and principles. However, students differ in their prior knowledge and cognitive skills and thus follow different learning pathways. We examined whether and how experimentation skills predict elementary students' pathways of conceptual knowledge development in science education.(More)
Grammatical gender is independent of biological sex for the majority of animal names (e.g., a male giraffe is grammatically treated as feminine). However, there is apparent semantic motivation for grammatical gender classes, especially in mapping human terms to gender classes. This research investigated whether this apparent motivation in mapping between(More)
Both cognitive and educational psychology literature strive to investigate human category and concept learning. However, both literatures focus on different phenomena and often use different methodologies. We identify and discuss commonalities and differences between the literatures. This literature comparison reveals that research on relational category(More)
Grammatical gender is independent of biological sex for the majority of animal names (e.g., any giraffe, be it male or female, is grammatically treated as feminine). However, there is apparent semantic motivation for grammatical gender classes, especially in mapping human terms to gender. This research investigated whether this motivation affects deductive(More)
We examined the puzzling research findings that when extending novel nouns, preschoolers rely on shape similarity (rather than categorical relations) while in other task contexts (e.g., property induction) they rely on categorical relations. Taking into account research on children's word learning, categorization, and inductive inference we assume that(More)
Enabling learners to transfer knowledge about formal principles to new problems is a major aim of science and mathematics education, which, however, is notoriously difficult to reach. Previous research advocates different approaches of how to introduce principles to foster the transfer of knowledge about formal principles. One approach suggests teaching a(More)
Conceptual change requires learners to restructure parts of their conceptual knowledge base. Prior research has identified the fragmentation and the integration of knowledge as 2 important component processes of knowledge restructuring but remains unclear as to their relative importance and the time of their occurrence during development. Previous studies(More)
We test the hypothesis that superficial knowledge interdependence is more effective in fostering individual learning from collaboration than the true knowledge interdependence often realized by jigsaw-type collaboration arrangements. Based on research on group information-processing, we argue for the benefits of distributing only contextual information, but(More)
Education aims to equip learners with knowledge about principles that can be applied across a wide range of situations but often people do not recognize structural similarity between known cases and novel problems. Several approaches for designing learning materials to foster transfer of principles have been proposed including learning a generic(More)
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