Lenin Mahimainathan

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Chemotactic factors known as chemokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Transgenic expression of TNFalpha in the central nervous system (CNS) leads to the development of a demyelinating phenotype (TNFalpha-induced demyelination; TID) that is highly reminiscent of MS. Little is known about the role of chemokines in TID(More)
Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2/NFE2L2), a redox-sensitive transcription factor plays a critical role in adaptation to cellular stress and affords cellular defense by initiating transcription of antioxidative and detoxification genes. While a protein can be regulated at multiple levels, control of Nrf2 has been largely studied at(More)
Primary cultures of fetal rat cortical neurons and astrocytes were used to test the hypothesis that astrocyte-mediated control of neuronal glutathione (GSH) is a potent factor in neuroprotection against rotenone and paraquat. In neurons, rotenone (0.025-1 μM) for 4 and 24 h decreased viability as did paraquat (2-100 μM). Rotenone (30 nM) decreased neuronal(More)
Ethanol increases apoptotic neuron death in the developing brain and at least part of this may be mediated by oxidative stress. In cultured fetal rat cortical neurons, Ethanol increases levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within minutes of exposure and reduces total cellular glutathione (GSH) shortly thereafter. This is followed by onset of apoptotic(More)
Glutathione (GSH), a major cellular antioxidant protects cells against oxidative stress injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2/Nrf2) is a redox sensitive master regulator of battery of antioxidant enzymes including those involved in GSH antioxidant machinery. Earlier we reported that ethanol (ETOH) elicits apoptotic death of primary(More)
Diabetic nephropathy is characterized early in its course by glomerular hypertrophy and, importantly, mesangial hypertrophy, which correlate with eventual glomerulosclerosis. The mechanism of hypertrophy, however, is not known. Gene disruption of the tumor suppressor PTEN, a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway, in fruit flies(More)
Ingestion of ethanol (ETOH) during pregnancy induces grave abnormalities in developing fetal brain. We have previously reported that ETOH induces programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a critical regulator of cell growth, in cultured fetal cerebral cortical neurons (PCNs) and in the cerebral cortex in vivo and affect protein synthesis as observed in Fetal Alcohol(More)
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent mitogen for mesangial cells. The mechanism by which EGF induces DNA synthesis is not precisely understood. We investigated the role of phosphatidylinositol (PI)3-kinase in regulating mitogenesis. EGF increased PI3-kinase activity resulting in stimulation of PDK-1 and Akt kinase activities. Blocking of PI3-kinase(More)
Developing brain is a major target for alcohol’s actions and neurological/functional abnormalities include microencephaly, reduced frontal cortex, mental retardation and attention-deficits. Previous studies have shown that ethanol altered the lateral ventricular neuroepithelial cell proliferation. However, the effect of ethanol on subventricular basal(More)
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