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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is shown to be a major causative agent in outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) reported in Guangdong (GD) Province of China in 2008. A total of 48,876 HFMD cases (131 severe and 21 fatal) were reported to the GD HFMD web-based surveillance system, which covers 871 clinics. The main causes of death included central nervous(More)
In China, rubella vaccination was introduced into the national immunization program in 2008, and a rubella epidemic occurred in the same year. In order to know whether changes in the genotypic distribution of rubella viruses have occurred in the postvaccination era, we investigate in detail the epidemiological profile of rubella in China and estimate the(More)
Rubella remains a significant burden in mainland China. In this report, 667 viruses collected in 24 of 31 provinces of mainland China during 2010-2012 were sequenced and analyzed, significantly extending previous reports on limited numbers of viruses collected before 2010. Only viruses of genotypes 1E and 2B were found. Genotype 1E viruses were found in all(More)
BACKGROUND Since 1997, several countries within the Asian Pacific region have been affected by one or more massive outbreaks of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD). Virus typing experiments revealed that these outbreaks were caused by strains of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) belonging to several different, recently emerged subgenogroups. In mainland China, a(More)
BACKGROUND China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV) provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic(More)
The human-pathogenic viruses in urban sewage have been extensively monitored to obtain information on circulating viruses in human communities. Enteroviruses (EVs) excreted by patients who present with diverse clinical syndromes can remain infectious in the environment for several weeks, and limited data on circulating environmental EVs are available. A(More)
Enterovirus 96 (EV-C96) is a newly described serotype within the enterovirus C (EV-C) species, and its biological and pathological characters are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the whole genome of a novel EV-C96 strain that was isolated in 2011 from a patient with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Guangdong province, China and characterized the(More)
Enterovirus A71 (EVA71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are regarded as the two major causative pathogens in hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics. However, CVA6, previously largely ignored, became the predominant pathogen in China in 2013. In this study, we describe the epidemiological trends of CVA6 during the annual HFMD outbreaks from 2008 to(More)
The incidence of measles in China from 1991 to 2008 was reviewed, and the nucleotide sequences from 1507 measles viruses (MeV) isolated during 1993 to 2008 were phylogenetically analyzed. The results showed that measles epidemics peaked approximately every 3 to 5 years with the range of measles cases detected between 56,850 and 140,048 per year. The Chinese(More)
The epidemiologic and genetic characteristics of mumps viruses detected in China from 1995 to 2010 were analyzed in this study. Mumps remains endemic in China with a high overall incidence rate. The incidence of mumps in Western China was higher than that in other regions of the country. Each year, most of mumps cases occurred between April and July, but a(More)