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We describe a method for determining the rate parameter of conjugative plasmid transfer that is based on single estimates of donor, recipient and transconjugant densities and the growth rate in exponential phase of the mating culture. The formula for estimating the plasmid transfer rate, gamma, was derived from a mathematical model describing cell growth(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training. METHODS Thirty-six untrained men were divided into groups that completed 12 wk of intense(More)
A protocol was developed to study the dynamics of growth and plasmid transfer in surface populations of bacteria. This method allows for quantitative estimates of cell population densities over time, as well as microscopic observations of colony growth and interactions. Using this 'surface slide system' (SSS), the dynamics of the plasmid R1 and its(More)
Mathematical models are used to ascertain the relationship between the incidence of antibiotic treatment and the frequency of resistant bacteria in the commensal flora of human hosts, as well as the rates at which these frequencies would decline following a cessation of antibiotic use. Recent studies of the population biology of plasmid-encoded and(More)
The interleukin-6 (IL-6) output from subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue was studied in nine healthy subjects before, during and for 3 h after 1 h two-legged bicycle exercise at 60 % maximal oxygen consumption. Seven subjects were studied in control experiments without exercise. The adipose tissue IL-6 output was measured by direct Fick technique. An(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS The insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is rapidly degraded in vivo as a result of the combination of extensive enzymatic degradation and renal extraction. The GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, has a longer duration of action, and has recently been approved as a new agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.(More)
Inactivity is a recognized compounding factor in sarcopenia and muscle weakness in old age. However, while the negative effects of unloading on skeletal muscle in young individuals are well elucidated, only little is known about the consequence of immobilization and the regenerative capacity in elderly individuals. Thus the aim of this study was to examine(More)
OBJECTIVE Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been implicated in lipid metabolism in animals. In humans, however, there is no clear evidence of GIP effecting lipid metabolism. The present experiments were performed in order to elucidate the effects of GIP on regional adipose tissue metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eight healthy(More)
Rats were exposed to 1200 ppm or 0 ppm toluene (CAS 108-88-3) for 6 h per day from day 7 of pregnancy until day 18 postnatally. Developmental and neurobehavioral effects in the offspring were investigated using a test battery including assessment of functions similar to those in the proposed OECD TG for Developmental Neurotoxicity Study, i.e., physical(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between fasting plasma leptin and 24-hour energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation, and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) in obese subjects before and after a major weight reduction compared with normal weight controls. To test fasting plasma leptin, substrate oxidations, and SPA as predictive markers of success(More)