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People typically remember emotionally negative words better than neutral words. Two experiments are reported that investigate whether emotionally enhanced memory (EEM) for negatively arousing words is based on a storage or retrieval advantage. Participants studied non-word-word pairs that either involved negatively arousing or neutral target words. Memory… (More)
In recognition tests, participants claim that stimuli appear more familiar after an intervening task (e.g., solving an anagram) than without an intervening task-the revelation effect. In Experiment 1, we warned half of the participants about the revelation effect and asked them to prevent any judgment bias. However, compared to a control group without… (More)
Repeatedly seen or heard statements are typically judged to be more valid than statements one has never encountered before. This phenomenon has been referred to as the truth effect. We conducted two experiments to assess the plasticity of the truth effect under different contextual conditions. Surprisingly, we did not find a truth effect in the typical… (More)