Lena Al-Harthi

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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) on the immune system before receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and on immune recovery after receipt of HAART among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. METHODS The study included 294 HIV-infected women who(More)
Although children born to HIV-infected (HIV+) women receiving antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy show virtually no adverse clinical effects at birth, the antiretroviral nucleoside analog drugs are known to damage nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. In this study, biomarkers of mitochondrial toxicity and genotoxicity have been examined in a(More)
CD4 can be up-regulated on CD8+ T cells generating a CD4dimCD8bright phenotype. We previously demonstrated that the CD4dimCD8bright phenotype constitutes an activated phenotype of CD8+ T cells. We demonstrate here that the activated CD4dimCD8bright T cells are not undergoing apoptosis and do not produce significant intracellular levels of interferon gamma(More)
To understand the impact of the menstrual cycle on immunologic parameters, we measured the level of cytokines and chemokines from plasma, cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), and saliva samples of 6 premenopausal women during the follicular and luteal phases of the ovulatory cycle. We demonstrate that the level of plasma interleukin-8 (IL-8) was 4-fold higher(More)
Considerable controversy exists over whether astrocytes can support human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We evaluated the impact of three cytokines critical to the development of HIV neuropathogenesis, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, on priming astrocytes for HIV(More)
Interleukin (IL)-7 plays several roles critical to T cell maturation, survival, and homeostasis. Because of these functions, IL-7 is under investigation as an immune-modulator for therapeutic use in lymphopenic clinical conditions, including HIV. We reported that naive T cells, typically not permissive to HIV, can be productively infected when pre-treated(More)
Typically, IFN-γ is an antiviral cytokine that inhibits the replication of many viruses, including HIV. However, in the CNS, IFN-γ induces HIV-productive replication in astrocytes. Although astrocytes in vitro are refractory to HIV replication, recent in vivo evidence demonstrated that astrocytes are infected by HIV, and their degree of infection is(More)
The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is involved in diverse cell functions governing development and disease. β-Catenin, a central mediator of this pathway, binds to members of the TCF/LEF family of transcription factors to modulate hundreds of genes. Active Wnt/β-catenin/TCF-4 signaling plays a significant role in repression of HIV-1 replication in multiple cell(More)
Astrocyte dysregulation correlates with the severity and the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia (HAD) progression, highlighting a pivotal role for astrocytes in HIV neuropathogenesis. Yet, astrocytes limit HIV, indicating that they possess an intrinsic molecular mechanism to restrict HIV replication. We previously established(More)
Alteration of cervicovaginal microbial flora can lead to vaginosis, which is associated with an increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. We recently characterized a soluble HIV-inducing factor (HIF) from the cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples of women. The goals of this study were to determine the effect of cervicovaginal microflora on HIV-1 expression and to(More)