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Molecular genetics has linked mitochondrial dysfunction to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease by the discovery of rare, inherited mutations in gene products that associate with the mitochondria. Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase-1 (PINK1), which encodes a mitochondrial kinase, and PARKIN, encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase, are the most frequent causes of(More)
Brachydactyly A1 (BDA1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by shortness of all middle phalanges of the hands and toes, shortness of the proximal phalanges of the first digit, and short stature. Missense mutations in the Indian Hedgehog gene (IHH) are known to cause BDA1, and a second locus has been mapped to chromosome 5p. In a consanguineous(More)
Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) (MIM 159900) is a rare "dystonia plus" syndrome, characterized by rapid myoclonic jerks, predominantly in the neck and upper limbs, in combination with dystonia. Mutations in the gene epsilon-sarcoglycan (SGCE) are known to be responsible for approximately one-third of cases. We screened 21 probands diagnosed with M-D for large(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) have been implicated as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, GBA mutations in PD patients of different ethnic origins were reported to be inconsistent. METHODS We sequenced all exons of the GBA gene in 225 PD patients and 110 control individuals from Eastern Canada. RESULT Two(More)
Inherited myoclonus dystonia (MD) is an autosomal dominant disorder in which we previously mapped a novel locus to chromosome18p11 (OMIM number: 607488). Since no further informative STS markers were found within the flanking shared regions, we utilized single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for fine-mapping. All known or predicted genes within this region(More)
Brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1) was the first disorder described in terms of autosomal dominant Mendelian inheritance. Early in the 1900s Farabee and Drinkwater described a number of families with BDA1. Examination of two of Drinkwater's families has revealed that, although they are not known to be related, both share a common mutation within the Indian(More)
Multiple genes have been now identified as causing Parkinson's disease (PD). In 2003, two mutations were identified in exon 1 of the Nurr1 gene in 10 of 107 individuals with familial PD. To date, investigators have only focused on screening for these known mutations of the Nurr1 gene. All individuals were recruited from two Parkinson's disease clinics in(More)
Mutations in the gene Indian Hedgehog (IHH) that cause Brachydactyly A-1 (BDA1) have been restricted to a specific region of the N-terminal active fragment of Indian Hedgehog involving codons 95, 100, 131, and 154. We describe two novel mutations in codons 128 and 130, not previously implicated in BDA1. Furthermore, we identified an independent mutation at(More)
Brachydactyly type A1 is an autosomal dominant disorder primarily characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of the middle phalanges of digits 2-5. Human and mouse genetic perturbations in the BMP-SMAD signaling pathway have been associated with many brachymesophalangies, including BDA1, as causative mutations in IHH and GDF5 have been previously identified. GDF5(More)
BACKGROUND To elucidate the genetic basis of a novel neurodegenerative disorder in an Old Order Amish pedigree by combining homozygosity mapping with exome sequencing. METHODS AND RESULTS We identified four individuals with an autosomal recessive condition affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Neuroimaging studies identified progressive global CNS(More)