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In experimentally infected insects, the sex ratio of first generation nematodes of five species of Steinernema was female-biased (male proportion 0.35-0.47). There was a similar female bias when the worms developed in vitro (0.37-0.44), indicating that the bias in these species is not due to a lower rate of infection by male infective juveniles (IJs).(More)
following nest exits. Every 2 to 3 days, nest position was changed in the horizontal plane on a 4 m long platform to make positional cues unreliable. The choice criterion for a returning bee was defined as the first colour landmark that the bee hovered in front of, or landed on. Thus, if the bee chose the training colour landmark, the response was(More)
BACKGROUND Person-centered approaches to the study of behavior change, such as repeated measures latent class analysis (RMLCA), can be used to identify patterns of change and link these to later behavior change outcomes. METHODS Daily smoking status data from three smoking cessation studies (N=287, N=334, and N=403) were submitted to RMLCA to identify(More)
BACKGROUND Previous laboratory studies have indicated the potential of some entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species for the control of larvae of the black cutworm (BCW). To determine the most promising EPN species and the most susceptible BCW stages, a more in-depth evaluation of seven EPN species against different BCW instars was carried out, the(More)
The entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema scarabaei has exceptional potential for the control of many white grub species. Initial studies suggested this species to have a widely ranging foraging strategy based on its attraction to hosts in soil columns, however, with a generally low but very variable dispersal rate even in the presence of hosts. The(More)
OBJECTIVE Knowledge of smoking change processes may be enhanced by identifying pathways to stable abstinence. We sought to identify latent classes of smokers based on their day-to-day smoking status in the first weeks of a cessation attempt. We examined treatment effects on class membership and compared classes on baseline individual differences and 6-month(More)
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